Archive for the ‘Research & Development’ Category

Pi-Day Reflections on Einstein and Vedanta

April 5, 2007

By Rajiv Bhole

Einstein’s birthday on Pi-Day 3.14, that is, March 14, is truly a cosmic event. Pi is the ratio that is integral to a circle, and Einstein is synonymous to the law of relativity or e=mc2 . Both the circle and the law of relativity are closely linked to ancient rishis and their wisdom for liberation. The rishis were dedicated people experimenting in various ways to understand the law and attain liberation.

A circle symbolises anything that is periodic or cyclic, as in the circle of birth and death. The law of relativity or e=mc2 is a mathematical way of saying that energy e is proportionate to the mass m with the square of the velocity of light c2 as a constant.

Alvares won the Nobel prize for creating a bubble chamber at the University of Berkeley and showing us that mass is constantly being converted to energy and back again 1,023 or c2 times every second, thus physically validating Einstein’s law of relativity. This is Truth at the subtlest level in all physical compounded matter.

The Buddha arrived at the same Truth.He says in the Tipitika that we are made up of tiny particles or kalapas. There being 43,000 such particles in a dust particle under the chariot wheel.In the blink of an eye trillions upon trillions of these kalapas arise and pass away. It was this Truth or law that the rishis and sages of ancient India were trying to discover, so that by following it they would reach their goal, get liberated and be supremely happy.

At the gross level they found that “Every action has an equal and opposite reaction”. This was the law of karma. We are born rich or poor, healthy or unhealthy because of our actions in previous rounds of birth and death. If we perform wholesome actions we are rewarded; if not, we’re punished, so to speak.

Since we all carry the conditioning or seeds of our past karmas, the rishis started experimenting on how to eradicate them. The body and mind was their laboratory and tool. Diligently sharpening their mind with meditation and searching within their own body they discovered that the root of all our actions lay in our own body. They found that the outer world becomes a reality for us only when it comes in contact with our sense doors. Then in our body starts a flow of aasavas or biochemical flow which produces pleasant or unpleasant sensations all over the body. Being unaware (moha) of them we react with craving (lobha) or aversion (dwesha) to these sensations. This reaction increases the biochemical flow, thus increasing the intensity of our feelings and sensations and causing us to react. Having identified the root of human action, rishi-munis observed sensations without reacting to them with craving or aversion and found themselves getting liberated from seeds of past actions and started feeling subtler sensations till they could feel a free flow of sensations from head to toe.

This was the dharmganga that we have to take a dip in to get liberated. When we eradicate all our past karmas we experience e=mc2 in our body and experience the amrit, deathless state of nirvana where nothing arises or dies.

This science of liberation of ancient
India is called Vipassana available to us even today. May all beings be Happy.

Guest Author :Rajiv Bhole at 

Pl. check out for more on vipassana.

(This article appeared in the Times of India’s “The Speaking Tree” on 26th March 2007:… )


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Gearge Bernard Shaw:::Mahatma Gandhi ::: Swami Vivekananda 

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[Vedio]- Divine vibration -TAT TWAM ASI: YOU= True being, Pure consciousness & Bliss.

April 4, 2007

O supreme Lord!

Thou art ever existence, ever conscious, ever blissful.

We mediate on thy most adorable glory,

May thou guide and inspire our intellectual,

On the path of highest divinity!

May we be able to desciminate between truth & falsehood ?

Om peace, peace, peace!

Kindly visit this beautiful & blissful video at : Golden Age With Divine Vibration

Que: what is the beauty of sanskrit language. Welcome your experience …….share ….

 Source : Antaryamin · The insider who is hidden

~Ajay Kr.Singh Niranjan : A Journey to Yoga-meditation: A balance path (a win-win solution)

Explore Your Brain : Right Brain vs. Left brain thinking

March 8, 2007

 ” The test of first rate of intelligence is the ability to hold to opposite idea in the mind at the same time and still retain the ability to fuction” – F.Scott Fitzgarald

Research on the brains has demonstrated that two different sides of the brain (“hemisphere”) are responsible for different mode of thinking. Both of these mode of thinking are required for uncovering the effective solution of the problem.

While most individual have a preference for one style and another, the real key is build the capacity for whole brain thinking in the organisation, where people are comfortable in one style or another, depending on the need of the situation. Building this capability is a key part of the innovative organisation.  

Complex  Questions: what is mind? Brain? Thinking?

From Wikipedia  : Mind refers to the collective aspects of intellect and consciousness which are manifest in some combination of thought, perception, emotion, will and imagination. 

The human brain is the most complex organ in the body. It controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity.Involuntary, or “lower,” actions, such as heart rate, respiration, and digestion, are unconsciously governed by the brain,specifically through the autonomic nervous system. Complex, or “higher,” mental activity, such as thought, reason, and abstraction, is consciously controlled.

The human brain is vast and complex. It contains some one hundred billion neurons, which are capable of electrical and chemical communication with tens of thousands of other nerve cells. Nerve cells in turn rely on some quadrillion synaptic connections for their communications. 

Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. Words referring to similar concepts and processes include cognition, sentience, consciousness, idea, and imagination. Thinking involves the deeply cereberal manipulation of information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thinking is a higher cognitive function and the analysis of thinking processes is part of cognitive psychology.

The following table illustrates the differences between left-brain and right-brain thinking:

Left Brain Thinking   Right Brain Thinking
Looks at parts
Looks at wholes


Photo Source:

from above table & picture , we can check & analysis about our thinking pattern. Where need more focus according to environment, conditions & requirement? 

Kindly read Left Vs. Right: Which Side Are You On? At which describe following processing of Brain.

  • Linear Vs. Holistic Processing
  • Logical Vs. Intuitive
  • Sequential Vs. Random Processing
  • Verbal Vs. Nonverbal Processing
  • Symbolic Vs. Concrete Processing
  • Reality-Based Vs. Fantasy-Oriented Processing

Definately , Sometime we need left brain thinking & some time right brain thinking and some times both thinking simultaneously for solution of complex problems. 


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Gearge Bernard Shaw :Mahatma Gandhi :Peter F. Drucker

Vedanta: the Ultimate Wisdom – Our True Nature is Divine

February 28, 2007

“Physicists do not need mysticism, and Mystics do not need Physics, but humanity needs both.” – Fritjof Capra

Vedanta: the Ultimate Wisdom – Our True Nature is Divine

Vedanta is one of the world’s most ancient religious philosophies and one of its broadest. Based on the Vedas, the sacred scriptures of
India, Vedanta affirms the oneness of existence, the divinity of the soul, and the harmony of religions. Vedanta is the philosophical foundation of Hinduism; but while Hinduism includes aspects of Indian culture, Vedanta is universal in its application and is equally relevant to all countries, all cultures, and all religious backgrounds.

A closer look at the word “Vedanta” is revealing: “Vedanta” is a combination of two words: “Veda” which means “knowledge” and “anta” which means “the end of” or “the goal of.” In this context the goal of knowledge isn’t intellectual—the limited knowledge we acquire by reading books. “Knowledge” here means the knowledge of God as well as the knowledge of our own divine nature. Vedanta, then, is the search for Self-knowledge as well as the search for God.

What do we mean when we say God? According to Vedanta, God is infinite existence, infinite consciousness, and infinite bliss. The term for this impersonal, transcendent reality is Brahman, the divine ground of being. Yet Vedanta also maintains that God can be personal as well, assuming human form in every age.

Most importantly, God dwells within our own hearts as the divine Self or Atman. The Atman is never born nor will it ever die. Neither stained by our failings nor affected by the fluctuations of the body or mind, the Atman is not subject to our grief or despair or disease or ignorance. Pure, perfect, free from limitations, the Atman, Vedanta declares, is one with Brahman. The greatest temple of God lies within the human heart.

Vedanta further asserts that the goal of human life is to realize and manifest our divinity. Not only is this possible, it is inevitable. Our real nature is divine; God-realization is our birthright. Sooner or later, we will all manifest our divinity—either in this or in future lives—for the greatest truth of our existence is our own divine nature.

Finally, Vedanta affirms that all religions teach the same basic truths about God, the world, and our relationship to one another. Thousands of years ago the Rig Veda declared: “Truth is one, sages call it by various names.” The world’s religions offer varying approaches to God, each one true and valid, each religion offering the world a unique and irreplaceable path to God-realization. The conflicting messages we find among religions are due more to doctrine and dogma than to the reality of spiritual experience. While dissimilarities exist in the external observances of the world religions, the internals bear remarkable similarities.And more ……


All ethics are merely a means to the end of finding God within ourselves.

“Right” action is action which brings us nearer to the knowledge of God. “Wrong” action leads us away from that knowledge.

Our ideas of “good” and “evil” are therefore only relative values and must not be used as an absolute standard by which we judge others. Each of us has our own problems and our own of development. But the goal is the same for all. and more …..


By Swami Vivekananda

(Delivered at Lahore on 12th November, 1897)

Two worlds there are in which we live, one the external, the other internal. Human progress has been made, from days of yore, almost in parallel lines along both these worlds. The search began in the external, and man at first wanted to get answers for all the deep problems from outside nature. Man wanted to satisfy his thirst for the beautiful and the sublime from all that surrounded him; he wanted to express himself and all that was within him in the language of the concrete; and grand indeed were the answers he got, most marvellous ideas of God and worship, and most rapturous expressions of the beautiful. Sublime ideas came from the external world indeed.

“What is that knowing which we know everything else?” In modern language, the theme of the Upanishads is to find an ultimate unity of things. Knowledge is nothing but finding unity in the midst of diversity.

Every science is based upon this; all human knowledge is based upon the finding of unity in the midst of diversity; and if it is the task of small fragments of human knowledge, which we call our sciences, to find unity in the midst of a few different phenomena, the task becomes stupendous when the theme before us is to find unity in the midst of this marvellously diversified universe, where prevail unnumbered differences in name and form, in matter and spirit — each thought differing from every other thought, each form differing from every other form. Yet, to harmonise these many planes and unending Lokas, in the midst of this infinite variety to find unity, is the theme of the Upanishads.

One step further, and we find the same teacher teaching that this God is not outside of nature, but immanent in nature. And at last both ideas are discarded, and whatever is real is He; there is no difference. “Shvetaketu, That thou art.” That Immanent One is at last declared to be the same that is in the human soul. Here is no Compromise; here is no fear of others’ opinions. Truth, bold truth, has been taught in bold language, and we need not fear to preach the truth in the same bold language today, and, by the grace of God, I hope at least to be one who dares to be that bold preacher. And more ………





-Ajay Singh Niranjan

“ this life is yours which you are living is not merely a piece of existence , but in certain sense the “whole”…this , as we know , is what the Brahmins express I that sacred mystic formula which is yet so simple , so clear. TAT TWAM ASI. This is you or again in such words as “I am in east, I am in the west, I am below and the above. I AM THIS WHOLE WORLD”- Erwin Schrödinger :an Austrian physicist who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933.


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~Ajay Singh Niranjan ~

SWOT MATRIX of INDIA: Analysis of Indian Social- Economic- Political- Technological conditions.

January 31, 2007

Dear Friends,  

There are few questions about our complex & unique system of India. How we can change our system thinking? How we can make a synergetic triangle: Industry-GOI- Institution for co creation of knowledgeable resources for evolution of innovations. 

Root Causes – Why Plans are not execute at the bottom? Constrains – Where are missing link?

Strategy & tactics – What is the action plans? Methods-how these actions plans execute for achieving the end Goal.

Kindly download one page colored framework of SWOT MATRIX of INDIA. URL: syenrgetic-trinangle-industry-government-instituion.docsyenrgetic-trinangle-industry-government-instituion.doc  


                  Industry-GOVERNMENT -institution


  • Highly educated , skilled ,young, capable & dynamic  human resources
  • English speaking & analytical students
  • World class business-social-spiritual –political leader, Professor, scientist, Manager-Doctor-Engineer-Civil servants etc
  • Very rich in  Natural & Living resources
  • Biodiversity & Traditional knowledge base
  • Diversity vs. Ideas-Innovation-Integration
  • Powerful spiritual strength (yoga-Ayurvada-Healing-therapy services)
  • Geographical location (whole markets are shifting toward Asian nations)
  • India Strategic position at various platforms
  • Big democracy, Big market & free media
  • Range of emerging professional champions
  • IT & Software superpower


  • Lack of trained & skill work force  
  • Small supply of specialize professional
  • Lack of spirits of entrepreneurship, patriotisms and leadership skill
  • Lack of effective & execution framework
  • Lack of Indian management models
  • Lack of transparency-Trust-Responsibility
  • Lack of learning habits & Team work spirit
  • Fear of sharing knowledge & taking risk
  • Thinking win-lose   lose-win   look-outside
  • Slow absorption of Innovation & change
  • Lack of Indian management models
  • Absence of greater technology impetus
  • Unawareness: Quality-Standardization
  • Lack of Emotional-Spiritual development
  • Rush of getting high marks not Development
  • Blindly respect anything taught by elders

THREATS (Internal & external): 

  • A feeling of unstable government
  • Self centered political leadership
  • Slow & Dysfunctional judiciary and corrupt law enforcers
  • Regulation, protection and restriction
  • Mechanistic -stable-Layered-complex system
  • Corruption, Ignorance & Complacency
  • High competitive & marketing forces
  • To patent Indian intellectual property by outsider (unawareness about own research)
  • Fast change Internet-information technology& new Inventions-Technology-Innovations
  • Diversity vs. Imbalance- clashes
  • Regional-Religion-caste-culture conflicts
  • Migration of all branch to software job
  • Job seeking mind sets, not job creator
  • Unnecessary social pressure on students
  • Excessive rich & powerful mindsets


  • Big potential market in education Sector & emerging new market Segment in services (create it)   
  • General Agreement of trade on Services
  • Research & Development capability
  • Generate intellectual property
  • Resource Building capacity
  • Competition- cost – Quality service

  • Collaboration : win-win thinking
  • Hybrid solution–balancing & blending
  • Tourism, health sector, food processing
  • Rural economy development & social transformation ( PURA model )
  • Need  modernization of infrastructure , Library and laboratory
  • Internet institute network & e-Library
  • Councilors and student advisors

India has lots of weakness but this is a space of thinking (new Ideas or new perceptions), understand it as a space of opportunities and transform into strength.  

Note: Please send your suggestions, experiences & questions for improvement of this SWOT MATRIX of India. 

Ajay Singh Niranjan (

Deeshaa – Transforming Rural India

January 29, 2007

Rural Infrastructure and Services Commons

RISC Schematic Presentation

The problem of the economic development of large underdeveloped economies present unique challenges that require innovative solutions. In an age of increasing specialization, there is a critical need for integration to supplement the specialization. Economies are complex, nonlinear systems and just as they cannot be adequately described by partitioning them into subsystems and analyzing them piecemeal, so also their problems cannot be addressed by partial interventions. This is because the subsystems of complex non-linear systems interact strongly with one another, and even the most carefully thought through partial solution often fails to achieve its intended goal.

The aim of RISC is to address the problems of one such complex nonlinear system — the rural Indian economy — and to outline a solution that addresses the problem of economic growth comprehensively by accomplishing a set of interlinked transitions to a more efficient equilibrium. Economic development is multi-faceted — demographic, technological, social, political, military, institutional, informational, ideological, and so on. Given binding resource constraints, the optimal solution requires the power of ideas for it to be feasible.

The RISC Paradigm

The economic development of India’s 600 million strong rural population presents formidable challenges and also great opportunities. An institutional innovation called RISC — Rural Infrastructural & Services Commons — is presented that has the potential for achieving the multi-faceted goals of sustainable economic development.

Fundamentally, the specific market failure that RISC addresses is that of coordination failure. RISC is designed to coordinate the activities of a host of entities—commercial, governmental, NGOs. It synchronizes investment decisions so as to reduce risk. It essentially acts as a catalyst that starts off a virtuous cycle of introducing efficient modern technology to improve productivity that increases incomes and thus the ability of users to pay for the services, and so on. It creates a mechanism that reduces transaction costs and therefore improves the functions of markets.

Revolutions in the information and communications technologies (ICT) have the potential to remove the barriers to information asymmetries that were impeding the working of markets that are critical for economic growth. The forces of globalization have created opportunities for the integration of rural populations in a larger marketplace than was ever available to them before.

Economic development is both the cause and consequence of urbanization. RISC achieves the urbanization of the rural population without requiring the massive and unsustainable rural-urban migration. It brings urbanization to the rural population by making available to them the full set of services and amenities that are normally available only in urban locations. It works within the constraints of limited resources by concentrating them in specific locations to obtain economies of scale, scope, and agglomeration. It helps lift the population out of a development trap by making available to them the benefits of technological advances and the increased access to global markets that globalization promises.

RISC follows the logical trend of moving away from vertically integrated institutions to one of horizontal segmentation and specialization. Thus, conceptually and operationally, a RISC has two levels: the lower one is the infrastructure level (henceforth, the I-level) which consists of power, broadband telecommunications, and the physical plant (building, water, air-conditioning, sanitation, security); and above that the user services level (henceforth, the S-level) which consists of all services that are relevant to rural economic activity such as market making, financial intermediation, education and library, health, social services, governmental services, and so on.

The I-level provides a reliable, standardized, competitively-priced infrastructure platform. This is achieved by the coordinated and cooperative actions of firms that specialize in the component activities. Co-located on the S-level are all kinds of firms that provide user services. The presence of the I-level reduces their costs and therefore the prices that the users face. Economies of scope and agglomeration are obtained by the presence of the variety of different service providers.

Given that rural populations are very poor, it is reasonable to expect that the aggregate demand of a single village for any single service will be very low. However, the aggregate demand for, say, a 100 villages for a single service could be significant. Aggregating the demand for many different kinds of services of the same 100 villages would translate into lot of services. These services would require infrastructural inputs which can be commercially and sustainably supplied. The total rural population of India can be covered by about 6,000 RISCs each servicing the needs of 100,000 people. The economies of scale are obtained by implementing a few thousand RISCs. Access to a RISC for any rural person is only a ‘bicycle commute’ away.

RISC is not an attempt at social engineering through centralized planning. Neither is it another model of Internet kiosk or telecenter. It aims to solve a problem by appealing to the profit motives of all participants, be they private sector, NGOs, or the public sector. The good that will surely come out of it can only be attributed to Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

The foundational idea upon which the proposed solution stands is that of the emergence of complex adaptive behavior from the interaction of agents following simple rules within a sufficiently rich environment. The solution provides a balance between the forces of cooperation and competition, between standardization and specialization, between private and public action, between generalization and particularization, between globalization and localization, between unity and diversity. It is an idea that is at once both blindingly obvious and fleetingly elusive.

Are you interested :Write to us for more information on RISC.

Download the concept paper on RISC.

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Turning India Vision 2020 into reality – role of technology financing

January 28, 2007

Dr. Abdul Kalam speaks, writes and works having a live vision at the back of his mind “Be India a Developed Nation“. The action plan to realise this blue print of mind into reality must have on the top of its itinerary ‘the technology’. Grooming ‘technology’ from seed upto a fruit bearing tree is an art, science and a specialised enterprise in itself.

Like in other businesses, finance is an important element here too. However, the key to success lies in assessing where, when and how to facilitate entry for money in the process of technological project realization. The author has a wide exposure to the whole tree of ‘technological growth process’ in various capacities – a grass root scientist, technocrat, industrial consultant and writer. It is with this backdrop that he enumerates the basic ingredients involved in making a technology idea grow into a full business, by ensuring the entry of financial sources at pre-assessed stages.

A vision is a picture of what is possible or what is desired in a longer-term future. It could be of one individual in origin or it could be a collective in its conception. The Technology Vision 2020 was a massive national exercise implemented by Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) during the years 1994 and 1995 and was released to the nation through a form of 25 documents on 2nd August, 1996 by the then Prime Minister. It resulted due to the tireless efforts of 500 persons with inputs from about 5000 persons from different fields of India.

A brief presentation of the findings of vision exercise along with several other linked factors such as the concept of developed India, economic issues, social issues and also certain implementational issues, have been brought out in a book “India 2020″ by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam along with the author.

Further elaboration starting with the vision and also dealing with several aspects of important interconnected policies and procedures as well as the processes of science and technology and human dimensions, have been brought out by the author in a book ‘Empowering Indians’ (revised reprint 2002 with a foreward by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam).

These two books contain substantive information about the details of the vision and also the various possibilities of implementation. The book referred to in Ref.2 has also described some of the projects in which TIFAC is involved in attempting to realise the vision into action as a major demonstrative exercise.

Much more can be seen in the TIFAC website: , which is continually updated. Several other parameters such as technology capabilities, organisational capabilities, project management market research, etc. are also important in realising the vision. Therefore this paper briefly addresses the role of technology financing.

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) Technology idea to business: The essential steps

Often many persons including scientists and technologists tend to believe that a scientific or technological idea if pursued with sufficient funding and support, would automatically result in a commercial operation. Many also tend to think that basic research to technology to commerce is a straight forward linear process given enough time and money.

In actual life, science and technology are distinct elements though interwined. Technology and technological skills and knowledge are not automatic input-output derivatives of basic scientific research. These are discussed in some detail in Ref.2 citing a number of quotes and references from scholars. In actual practice, technology is complex and tacit (i.e. embodied in persons and organisations).

There are many different strands of technology in a single product or service. Therefore, having an excellence in one technological element alone does not assure a commercial product, let alone a commercial success. Based on the experiences of TIFAC and also of Technology Development Board (TDB), Prof. VS Ramamurthy, Secretary, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India often emphasises in a number of meetings and speeches that while financing is an important component, technology development does not take place merely by stepping up finance.

There are many other prior activities which need to be done if technology development can mature into a good business activity. It is precisely in this area where TIFAC has done considerable amount of work during the past 14 years. In the subsequent paragraphs the author will try to compress a few important issues relating to converting of technological ideas into business operations.

In actual life, science and technology are distinct elements though intertwined. Technology and technological skills and knowledge are not automatic input-output derivatives of basic scientific research

Let us refer to Fig.1. The x-axis of the Figure is time. The quantity of time will depend upon the product or service under consideration. For a completely new area time at the right hand end i.e., the time for “produce and supply to market”, could even be 7 years. In a number of cases in industry it would be of the order of ½ – 3 years for incremental innovations.

In fact, a good business strategy should be to have a number of technologically induced innovative products with different cycle times for realisation, so that in the overall, the technology development (which requires financing) will be continuously giving financial outputs through delivery to market, thus not becoming a drain on the overall to the company. This may be called “technology development diversification strategy”.

techfin1.jpg (43841 bytes)
Fig 1

If a company does not have even a plan of having a few innovations in the existing product line or otherwise every 2 to 3 years, it is very unlikely the company can be successful in a present day competitive business world. It is necessary for a company or an entrepreneuer to look ahead in time as to what would be the status a few years from now. This looking ahead will help in initiating actions right now. This is where the role of technology financing starts.

Having identified a few product or service segments for the coming few years, the question (before the company or entrepreneur) comes as to what we will do now. How do we reaslise the desired change in the existing product line or process or even in terms of introducing new products/services. Often this process of looking ahead and deciding action for today, is an iterative process.

A technological idea or a business idea could give some idea as to what a future product can be. Then cycling back whether one should have different options, one would modify the product idea or service idea and finally arrive at a few target end results from a time equal to plus x years (i.e. in the near term future).

Having done this the technology development or business development starts. That is where the problem also starts. Invariably for such items which are innovative at the given point of time (in the present) there will be a relatively high degree of business and market uncertainty as well as product and technical uncertainties and perceived technology risks.

If these are very low at given point of time (in the present) there will be a relatively high degree of business and market uncertainty as well as product and technical uncertainties and perceived technology risks. If these are very low at given point of time (now) that means the product and services are already well established in market and therefore there is no great innovation involved. Actions relating to such products will be mainly issues like cutting costs or by trying some other business strategies. In such cases normally the competitor will also be doing the same and one cannot sustain long with such non-innovative actions.

Therefore, those who want to have a good business for the future where his or her company will have a specific commanding role or a powerful role or atleast a role in which the company fortunes are not fluctuating too fast then the company has to learn to take up just now in the present new activities where there are some higher business and market uncertainties and which are likely to become desired products or services a few years from now.

Often in India since business groups and technology development groups even within the same company tend to work differently in separate compartments each one worries only of his own part. If the technology is from an external institution to the company or the entrepreneur, then such “separatist” perceptions are often worse.

Normally technology generators do not think of all the options available for a business company or an entrepreneur and try to push their own specialisations; this is but natural. Similarly the business person or entrepreneur looks at only the investment aspects, markets and returns. But as explained above, for a futuristic product even with small changes at a future time of two to three years from now, it is necessary to study the technological aspects and the business aspects connected with these changes right now and take action. This zone is close to the origin of the Fig.1.

In the figure, technology, product and service uncertaintly is in the upper part of the y axis and business and market part of the uncertainty is to be in the lower part of the y axis. The correct management strategy should be to look at both parts of the curves (i.e. upper and lower) together.

If technology funding is done for a future product, without considering the lower half of the figure, even though in the time axis over a few years the technical uncertainties will come down, business uncertainty may not have come down because market and other issues have not been factored in the technology development. And, vice versa, if only a business strategy is done with marketing and other aspects without considering technological aspects on the assumption that the technology generator can be approached a few years from now after the market development and business development steps are ready, then we may be surprised to know that technological availability is poor or uncertainties are high. Then again, the lost time cannot be easily regained. Therefore, the correct management strategy is to grapple with technological uncertainties and technological risks as well as business and market uncertainties at the same time well in advance of the time in which we anticipate results to flow.

 In other words, in the figure the left side of the funnel has to be dealt with pushing all the stake holders together inside the broad end of the funnel, so to say, figuratively thus making them a collective group to weigh technology options, to look at business aspects, etc. These functions are done by TIFAC in generating a number of well-researched reports in technology areas, as technology linked business opportunities.

techfin.jpg (24657 bytes)

Some of the reports are at a relatively macro/meso level as in the case of the Technology Vision 2020 reports and most of TIFAC reports are at meso / micro level (i.e. close to action levels) as in the Techno-Market Survey reports of the TIFAC. When issues are discussed to generate such reports, even the very process of the generation of the report creates a cohesion for further forward movement into the funnel without imbalance between the technology and business aspects. These reports are available in the public domain from TIFAC and industries can use them effectively for themselves to enter into funnel and later pursue specific projects. Many of them are already doing it. It is important for entrepreneurs and business managers to do such knowledge based preparations before they go for financing of technologies.

The technology financing is not a mere exercise in calculating the returns of investment or giving money as per procedures and formats but is more complex

Again while embarking on specific projects, one has to start looking at various technical elements including intellectual property rights (IPR) and other aspects even while formulating the projects. This process will help to a great deal in reducing uncertainties and help making a forward effective movement into the funnel of uncertainty. Then, when the decision is taken to launch a project (by the entrepreneur or a company), further details can be worked out.

Often TIFAC not only helps in entering the early part of the funnel before the launch of the project through its reports but also helps the potential entrepreneur who applies for the Home Grown Technologies (HGT) Program of TIFAC or Missions such as Sugar Technology Mission, Advanced Composites Mission, etc. or a number of vision 2020 projects which range from agriculture, agro processing, health sector, textile machinery, road transport sector and several other thrust areas like energy, etc. (see for details in Ref.3). Even while these projects are formulated by the entrepreneur or company and sent to TIFAC, through further assessment, evaluation and the interactive process. TIFAC helps in narrowing many uncertainties by scoping the project.

 In fact, agencies which have funds will be able to do this well because often the potential customer would not like to spend a lot of intellectual and other managerial efforts in scoping when there is severe uncertainty about funding. That is why, the author believes the real role of a technology funder starts at a time before the line shown in the fig.1 as “launch of the project”.

But actual funding takes place after several of these evaluations and interactions. During this process the company or entrepreneur writes down the business plan and also goes through draft agreement for part funding which spells out roles of various stakeholders.

NRDC is one major facilitator in technology financing; while it can enter in any part of funnel of Fig.1, often it is better done in the middle of funnel when uncertainities are not too high

After the agreement is signed and the part fund flow begins, the role of the funder specially in the case of TIFAC changes into a different mode. Even though all the while TIFAC is a partner with the entrepreneurs and the technology generators coming up for a specific project, however, when TIFAC has funded, it assumes a special role of working closely and brings in the best experts as Project Monitoring Teams without conflict of interest with the entrepreneur and/or the company. Based on the TIFAC experience, many of the persons who have received technology finance from TIFAC have said that the role of the project monitoring group is that of counselling rather than monitoring.

It should be pointed here that there is no omnibus monitoring committee for TIFAC funded projects. Each project has a special monitoring group depending upon the expertise required and often bringing people with industrial experience and also those who can deal with end users and market segments. When these partners go further and further down the funnel from the left hand broad side of the funnel towards the narrower part in the right side, the uncertainties come down. In this process or pilot plant operations based on technological/business idea takes place, so that a stage is set for a much larger commercial operation. At this stage the companies can access Technology Development Board (TDB) or in some cases even the banks when risks have come down considerably.

Thus a crucial role of agencies like TIFAC in technology financing is to give options of ideas at an early stage through its reports and other interactions) and allow the potential companies and technology tenerators to enter the left side (broad side) of funnel in a synchronised manner and then be able to launch specific projects and work along till the uncertainties are brought down to minimum. So the technology financing is not a mere exercise in calculating the returns of investment or giving money as per procedures and formats but is more complex.

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) Technology financing sources: where and when they enter

This section describes information about various sources of financing available to an Indian company or entrepreneur and also the elements of criteria used by them.

We have described about TIFAC. It normally funds part on a soft loan basis. The projects can be a few tens of lakhs to several crores of rupees.

NRDC is one major facilitator in technology financing. While it can enter in any part of the funnel of Fig.1, often it is better done in the middle of funnel when uncertainties are not too high. NRDC can help the entrepreneur to gain some competitive time to launch commercial projects in addition to finding financing sources. NRDC would, of course, be looking at its own income as well. Projects can be a few tens of lakhs to several crores of rupees. NRDC helps in exports as well. It also helps in IPR aspects.

When uncertainties come down, and there is a greater promise of large commercial operations, go to TDB. It is better to have projects in the range of a few tens of crores of rupees. Again it is soft loan, part funding.

PATSER of DSIR is another source. Again it is better to target PATSER when you are in the middle level of the funnel. It is a part grant with royalty clauses.

There is another interesting scheme called TePP (Technopreneur Promotion Programme) jointly operated by PATSER and HGT of TIFAC. It is a small funding from several thousands to a few lakhs of rupees. Helps small individual innovators, mostly in the broad side of the funnel. Once their ideas show promise, they can try to go for PATSER or HGT.

SIDBI is another source but often in the right side (narrow side) of the funnel. It is a loan.

The author would advise entrepreneurs and companies to go for loan (soft or otherwise) rather than simple grants as it will train them to be sustainable, a feature very much needed in the competitive world.

There are also a few private sector venture capitalists and banks which are ready to fund projects. Often they are at the stage of right side of the funnel. They may be in IT and BT (Biotech) areas only. In future they may enter other areas. Other Government departments are trying to emulate TIFAC, PATSER, etc. One should look out for these.

techfin2.jpg (40209 bytes)

Since this is a changing scene, be in touch with websites like that of TIFAC which give information about financing sources and technology sources.

                                                                      Author : Dr. Y. S. Rajan

Readers are also welcome to contact the author in e-mail: & who would use the TIFAC network to assist you.

On the whole technology financing in India is fast entering a phase where industry and entrepreneurs are respected. About 85% projects funded by TIFAC, TDB and PATSER are for industry – big, small and medium. Take advantage of them, enter into development well ahead of time. Be not afraid of the broad end of uncertainties as “the early bird catches the worms”.

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) Acknowledgement

The author thanks Dr. V Siddhartha, Chairman, TIFAC-HGT Apex Board for giving material from International Society of Air Breathing Engines from which the author has adapted and further developed Fig.1

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) REFERENCES

1. Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam with Y.S. Rajan: “India 2020 : A Vision for the new Millennium”, Viking-Penguin, New Delhi (1998), (reviewed in Invention Intelligence, May-June 1999).

2. Y.S. Rajan, “Empowering Indians : with economic, business and technology strengths for the twenty-first century”, Har Anand Publications, New Delhi – Revised reprint with foreword by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, April/2002 (A review of the book appeared in Invention Intelligence, March-April, 2002).

3. Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) websites : , ,


Education Matrix of India

January 27, 2007


  1. Rs 45,000 cr** per year is repatriated out of India, for nearly 1,90,000 Indian students studying abroad. [** these are estimated figures]
  2. Rs 3,000 cr is the yearly budget of the University Grants Commission, UGC, in New Delhi.
  3. Rs 3,000 cr** is spent by nearly 6,00,000 students trying to arrange and learn for the entrance examinations into the 7 IIT’s and the first 20 top IIM’s and Management Institutes. Selection rate is hardly 1.5% against nearly 10% in Ivy league colleges such as MIT, Harvard, Cambridge, Stanford etc.
  4. Rs 50,000 cr** is spent by Indians, every year, for import of 8,00,000 kgs. of Gold . So there is enough money to be spent by Indians for good things.
  5. Higher education is subsidized, while we still have 350 million as per GOI and 650 millions as per UNDP who are illiterate! Even after 56 years of Independence we have still not taken the first step in the path of education. The present definition of an ‘illiterate’, as defined in India, needs to be changed.
  6. Why should we pay only $45, per month, as fees in the IIT’s and depend on hand outs of the GOI, when our youth must pay $ 2000 to 3000 per month fees, in equivalent Institutions in the USA?
  7. The drop out rate between the Class 1st to the Class 10+2, is nearly 94% in India. The present system is designed ONLY for the balance 6%. How are the balance 94%, who drop out, supposed to manage?
  8. The present system puts in too much emphasis for the development of IQ [only 5% of brain used] and not enough into SQ and EQ
  9. We do not seem to be preparing our youth to face the International challenge of an open economy, which will happen in the next 2 to 5 years. One can find engineers, accountants, lawyers, MBA’s, graduates in Science, Commerce and Arts – but no skilled manpower in the 1800 different fields required by enterprises, to run the Nation! People are available. Most of them are not employable in India or outside!
  10. Education & Training is a life-long process and not meant to stop at an age of 20 or 22! In the progressive countries of the world, nearly 1 month per year is reserved for training/re-training and re-education, right up to an age of 55 or 60. The advantages of Training have still not been understood by the people of India.
  11. Education in India still considered as a social cause only. Fortunately, the Politicians have recognized Education as a good and lucrative business, as many of them are running a large number of Institutions.
  12. The problems of poor quality in education & training will not go away by controls, but by de-controls. High Capitation fees are there because of the number of seats available are much less than the actual demand. Market forces, supply and demand should balance the existence of Educational Institutions.
  13. Paradigm methods for funding of new educational infrastructure are not being considered. We need 30-year-low-interest-tax-free-infrastructure-bonds.
  14. In a developing nation like India, the higher you study, the more the subsidy you get from the state. Why should B. Com., B.Sc. B.A., etc be subsidized?


  1. Higher education should be ‘de-licensed’. AICTE should become a ‘enabler’ rather than a ‘controller’. License Raj to go, it is not serving any purpose, only a reason to stifle the growth of all types of higher education in India, and discourage excellence. Quality is achieved only with freedom.
  2. All subsidies for higher education must be removed. These funds should be recycled for Primary, Secondary, High School and ESD and VET only.
  3. Both ESD and VET promote higher levels of SQ and EQ. Many students, who do higher studies, as they work, understand how the world works. Here kids are doing higher studies without understanding the environment, maturity is not enough. Some times quality is poor, so is the confidence levels of the output.
  4. Foreign language, besides English, is a must. Eg., German, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Spanish, etc…
  5. Work experience is a must, not only summer training. At least +2 years, after college for MBA, and another +2 years after Masters, for a PhD.
  6. Teachers and Professors must ‘shunt’ between college and enterprise. Cannot stay put only in one place. Stagnation leads to obsolescence!
  7. Funding of all types of higher education needs a paradigm shift of thinking. Privatize maximum. Do not ask for the source of funds for the next 20 years. Best teachers must be attracted to work in Educational Institutions. Reservation of up to 35% of the seats can be kept for Merit-cum-Poverty cases.
  8. Education is BIG Business any where in the world. About $2400 billion** per year, nearly 5 times the size of IT and software. If we can pick up only 10% of the world business, it will increase our GDP by 50%! This can be achieved in the next 10 to 15 years. Why should we allow Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia or Dubai to take away our business and jobs?
  9. India is ideally suited to become a HUB for education for Asian countries in the near future. Australia earns nearly $20 billion** per year on foreign students. [ this is nearly 40% of the entire export of India and nearly 200% of India’s software exports]
  10. Quality will improve only by deregulation and NOT by regulation and controls. Let there be a 100 IIT’s or a 100 IIM’s. The good institutions do not have to advertise and promise placements etc. The market knows best. Interaction between Institutions and Industry-Enterprise must be magnified 10 fold.
  11. Indian Institutions must bench mark with the rest of the world and NOT only with each other, in India! Foreign accreditation is required to improve ‘Governance’. ISO 9000 is not enough. Look at 6 sigma, etc.
  12. And lastly, Think Global but Act local! Which means, that we should get all the Best Ideas from all over the World and implement them to Indian conditions, for achieving the Best Results for the people of India.

The only Constant in Life is CHANGE!

                                           Source : i watch-Transforming India

Kindly write for more information & details for i watch-Transfomring India book.

Ajay Singh Niranjan (

i watch Education 1st

551, 2nd Floor , Mukherji Nagar, Delhi -110009

Spiritual Intelligence & Leadership

January 27, 2007

Dear Friends,

What is the true nature of self ? True nature of self is well described in our timeless wisdom of ancient India and we are the leader of leaders in spiritual wisdom. just recall universal prayer: Gayatri Mantra. 

 “O supreme Lord! Thou art ever existence, ever conscious, ever blissful. We mediate on thy most adorable glory, may thou guide and inspire our intellectual, on the path of highest divinity! MAY WE BE ABLE TO DESCRIMINATE? BETWEEN TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD”. –Rig 3 .62 .10

Kindly visit the article. And try to explore your all intelligences for development of Intellectual.

Ajay Singh Niranjan ( )                

              Spiritual Intelligence & Leadership

By Cindy Wigglesworth

Research is finally validating what many of us knew all along – that there is more to great leaders than brains. What research is now validating is that great leaders need to use their hearts and souls, as well as their minds! But let’s begin at the beginning…

In 1905 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first modern intelligence test. Since that time we have been debating what “intelligence” is, where it comes from, and how to develop it.

Our “Intelligence Quotient” or “IQ” is generally thought of as our linear, analytical intelligence. Initially it was expected that IQ would be a strong predictor of success in careers. In fact it has turned out to be a weak predictor of success. IQ appears to be related to minimum standards to enter a given a profession. But once you have chosen your career, what actually leads to success is far more complicated.

Daniel Goleman popularized the phrase “Emotional Intelligence” with the publication of his book by the same title in 1995. In his book, Goleman cites research at Bell Labs that examined star performers, and tried to determine what distinguished them from more average performers. It appeared that star performers had stronger relationship skills than average performers. Harvard Business Review published the results of the Bell Labs study in 1993. Business interest in the study of “Emotional Intelligence” or “EQ” began in earnest.

EQ is actually a large collection of skills. Goleman has recently grouped these skills into 4 quadrants as shown below1.


Emotional self-awareness
Accurate self-assessment


Organizational Awareness
Service Orientation


Achievement Orientation


Teamwork & Collaboration
Developing Others
Conflict Management

There is a fascinating relationship among these quadrants. Research is showing that EQ begins in the Self Awareness quadrant. The degree to which we are self-aware literally limits our ability to be aware of others, or to manage ourselves. The last skills to develop are our Social Skills, being dependent on the other 3 quadrants. Self-awareness is dependent on listening to feedback. So a willingness to truly hear others is a prerequisite for high EQ.

It is interesting that Socrates gave the advice “Know Thyself” approximately 2400 years ago. The historical Buddha (roughly 2500 years ago) made the study of the mind (profound self-knowledge) such an elevated practice that it became a major world religion.

So what is the link to Spiritual Intelligence? Dana Zohar, a quantum physicist, gave a lecture at the Science and Consciousness conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico in April 2001. She was working on a new book on Spiritual Intelligence (or “SQ”), and at that time listed 9 characteristics of SQ. The first of Zohar’s points directly echoes the first quadrant of EQ – Self Awareness but goes beyond it to a sense of connection to the universe.

Spiritual Intelligence, according to Zohar, is:

1. Self-Awareness … you know who you really are and you know that you are connected with the whole universe.

2. Vision & Values Led – or Idealism. Children naturally want to serve, and so do we. Vision and values led is definitive of our humanity.

3. The Capacity to Face and USE Adversity…owning our mistakes and adversity and using pain and tragedy to learn

4. To be Holistic: seeing the connections between things. Being open to and interested in EVERYTHING.

5. Diversity…thriving in and celebrating diversity. I look at you and see what is different in you and I say “Thank God for that!”

6. Field Independence (Courage)…a term from psychology that means the courage not to adapt, to be independent.

7. The Tendency to Ask WHY? Questions are infinite. In Quantum Physics questions CREATE reality.

8. The Ability to Re-Frame…put things into a larger context of meaning.

9. Spontaneity. This is NOT acting on a whim…it comes from the same Latin roots as RESPONSE and RESPONSIBILITY. It is not conditioned by fear. It is appropriately “responsive to” the world.

Jim Collins became famous in the world of business with the publication of his first book, “Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies” (HarperCollins, 1994) co-authored with James Porras. In it they described their in-depth research and their conclusions regarding 18 companies that were unique in their reputation in their industry, their resilience through hard times and their financial success over 50+ years. The central conclusion: truly great companies are Visionary and Values driven. This directly echoes Dr. Zohar’s 2nd characteristic of SQ.

In his latest book, “Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don’t,” (HarperCollins 2001) Jim Collins researched 11 companies who made the transition from being good companies to being “great” companies on par with the companies in “Built to Last”. A key finding was that each company had what he calls “Level 5 Leadership” (see for more information). As I read about Level 5 leaders I realized that they seemed to demonstrate most or all of the characteristics described as “SQ” by Zohar. In addition, they showed a profound personal humility and a powerful faith that they and their company would prevail in the end, regardless of the difficulties.

Self-awareness and cultivating inner strength (or faith) has a solid grounding in all of the major spiritual traditions. Jesus went into the wilderness to meditate and to hear the voice of the infinite creator, as did Abraham, Moses and Mohammed. Buddhists and Hindus practice meditation for these purposes as well.

The implications for leadership are clear. High IQ doesn’t guarantee a good leader. High EQ has been correlated with success. But does it alone create greatness? Sustained and recognized greatness, even in the tough world of Corporate America, is obtained by something deeper. If a corporate leader is willing to deeply know herself and her place in the universe, she can reach the graduate school of SQ. With SQ comes the ultimate success – obtaining company success in such a way that customers, employees and society all benefit. And after creating a great company, the high SQ person sincerely deflects all praise onto the “wonderful people of this organization.”

What if EQ and SQ skills became part of the curriculum for all leaders? With solid analysis such as Jim Collins’ leading the way, perhaps that day will soon come.

1  Daniel Goleman, lecture given at September 1999 Emotional Intelligence Conference,
Chicago, ILSource: 


“Know the Atma (Soul) as the lord and the master of the chariot, which is the body. The intellectual you should know as the charioteer. The mind should be known as (merely) the rein. The one whose mind is not harnessed properly, who’s is devoid of proper knowledge and wisdom, his sense organs go beyond the control of the intellect as vicious horse go beyond the control of charioteer”- Kathopnishad

Will Foreign Universities Come to India?

January 27, 2007

For decades, the country has sent its best and brightest away to study, sometimes never to return. Now leaders want the schools to come to them

For decades, India’s whiz kids with the financial means have packed up and headed off to foreign universities for their higher education. Many never come back, creating a huge diaspora of talent abroad. Around 150,000 students are currently studying in the U.S., Britain, Australia, and elsewhere. An additional 100,000 depart every year to pursue foreign degrees at a cumulative cost in tuition and housing of about $4 billion on average every year.

But what if the best universities—such as Yale, Stanford, Oxford, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the London School of Economics—could more easily set up campuses, hire faculty, and conduct research in India? It would open up world-class education and managerial training to a wider swathe of Indian society, where the number of college degrees on a per capita basis is low compared with China. A fast-track economy such as India’s needs a deep pool of skilled managers to secure its economic future.

That’s precisely the argument that Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s government is making in trying to open up the country’s heavily regulated educational system to foreign direct investment. Singh’s new Commerce Secretary, Gopal Krishna Pillai, thinks Indian competitiveness is being held back and Indian families are needlessly paying huge sums to educate their kids abroad.

GOVERNMENT OVERSIGHT.  So why not bring a Harvard or Oxford to India? “If they are allowed to set up shop in our country, this money can be saved,” Pillai told reporters last month.

Yet this being India, things are not so simple. India’s Union Human Resource Development Ministry, which has a big say in national educational policy, isn’t thrilled by the idea. It wants the government to closely regulate educational offerings from abroad and set faculty salaries of any foreign university settling in the country.

Then there is the issue of whether India’s controversial quota system that reserves coveted seats at universities for underprivileged castes would extend to overseas schools entering the market (see, 5/19/06, “India’s Affirmative Action Rocks the Boat”). These issues and others have held foreign higher education investment back, despite the government’s lifting of FDI restrictions back in 2001.

SIXTY BELOW TWENTY-FIVE.  What’s clear is that India needs a dramatic upgrade of its system of state universities and private colleges. True, the various Indian Institute of Technology campuses are world-class and have long turned the country’s smartest kids into stars. But that is an exception, and competition for those slots is ferocious.

Few would dispute that India needs better schools to meet the needs of the world’s largest pool of young people. Some 60% of India’s 1 billion-plus population is below the age of 25.

And there are concerns about the quality of Indian students emerging from the domestic higher education system. A study last year by McKinsey concluded that only 25% of India-trained engineers and 15% of the system’s finance and accounting professionals had the skill set to work for a multinational company.

FILLING POSITIONS.  Even Indian companies have started to complain and are hiring foreign talent for critical positions. “With our rigid boundaries in education, we are losing out enormously in a changing environment,” says Indira Parekh, president of a soon-to-be-launched group called the Foundation for Liberal & Management Education in Pune.

This could hurt India’s phenomenal success in generating growth from the global outsourcing trend in software design and back office operations. McKinsey and the India IT industry group Nasscom have estimated that India has the potential to grab 50% of the estimated $110 billion global outsourcing market expected by 2010. But it will need a quality workforce to do so.

Right now the picture isn’t promising. India’s educational system in rural areas is in desperate need of investment. Nationwide, only 15% of the 200 million-plus student population makes it to high school, and only half those students actually graduate.

TEACH LOCALLY.  In the 17-to-23-year-old age group, only 11% (or 10.5 million students) sign up for higher education. Compare that to other developing economies: 13% in China, 31% in Philippines, 27% in Malaysia, and 19% in Thailand. New Delhi’s annual budget for higher education is $2 billion, or 0.37% of GDP, which also lags most other countries in the region.

All this is why bringing the best foreign universities to India makes so much sense in the eyes of many. “If the students can’t move to the schools, the schools will move to the students,” says Subir Gokarn, chief economist at India’s largest rating agency, Crisil. (Like, Crisil is a unit of The McGraw Hill Cos. (MHP ).) Big foreign universities have shown interest in India—it is the third biggest educational market in terms of enrollment behind China and the U.S.

Harvard’s Southeast Asia Initiative in Bombay was set up last year not just to facilitate research for its faculty in India, but to also provide the India experience for its interns. Sanjiv Kaura, director of the Harvard program, thinks there is potential not only to educate Indian undergrads but also to provide post-graduate and executive education programs for Indian politicians and business execs. “In a fast-paced life, people want to reflect in an academic setting,” he says.

STUDENTS WAITING.  Already, foreign schools are starting to set up field offices and research centers to explore the possibilities of bigger investment down the road. The Indian School of Business in the southern state of Hyderabad was set up in 2001 in association with Kellogg, Wharton, and London Business School for managerial training.

Two years ago the University of Michigan’s business school opened an economic research center in Bangalore. “These efforts will not only improve market size but quality of education,” says M Shrikant, dean of the S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research, the Bombay business school that has opened campuses in Dubai and Singapore.

Will foreign universities be allowed to take the next step and set up campuses for an array of undergraduate courses? A lot depends on whether New Delhi will remove the regulations standing in the way. Plenty of Indian students would certainly stay at home if they could earn a quality foreign degree at a fraction of the cost of heading overseas.

Lakshman covers India business for BusinessWeek