Archive for the ‘India’ Category

e-Learning (8 C’s ) – Shiksha : Education Equity through technology tools

March 12, 2007

“The illerate of the 21 century will not to be those who can not read and write but those who can not learn, unlearn & relearn”- Alvin Toffler  

Dear Friends,  This is a very nice e-Learning Model for facilitating education through technology tool with synergetic efforts of all stakeholders.    CII-Shiksha has created an 8 component model to deliver the program and to ensure a meaningful impact on the teaching-learning process in the schools.The schools put in their efforts by way of three components which are Computers, Connectivity and Commitment. CII-Shiksha provides Content , Coaching and Communication  components – Creativity and Collaboration. components to the program. The outcome of the mutual contribution are the two. 

Pillars of e- Learning 8 Component Model:

  1. Creativity
  2. Communication
  3. Collaborations
  4. Commitment
  5. Computers
  6. Connectivity
  7. Contents
  8. Coaching

Program Details:

CII-Shiksha Motto-Five all’s: 

  • Covering all – catering to all categories of academic institutes
  • Open to all – sharing of source code
  • All states
  • All Languages
  • All subjects

 Objective of Shiksha India:

·      To equip schools with Shiksha platform comprising of Content, Coaching and Communication.

·      To develop a network of like minded partners (organisations, institutes and individuals) and facilitate to bring in their expertise to the Shiksha schools, in terms of manpower, resources, projects/programs, etc.

·      To develop a network of schools and provide with a platform to combine their efforts and reach common identified goals without efforts being  duplicated and resources being  wasted.

·      To provide a forum for students and teachers across the country to collaborate, share and showcase their creativity.

·      To  network with other similar initiative and provide special synergies for the schools in the Shiksha network


Ajay Singh Niranjan Email: ajay_uor (at) yahoo (dot) com

********************************************** Knowledge and ignorance are the two unborn ones. One is the ruler and the other, the ruled. Apart from these two, there is another who is also unborn and who is connected with the enjoyer and his enjoyment. And then there is the infinite self, the universal form, who is non-doer. When one knows this triad, one has known Brahman (cosmic consciousness).”- Upanishad

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——-||||||Effective Quotations by Great Thinker||||||——- 

 Gearge Bernard Shaw:::Mahatma Gandhi ::: Swami VivekanandaPeter F. Drucker :::Warren Bennis ::: Jack Welch


i Watch – Education First – Transforming India

March 12, 2007

Dear Friends,

I am happy to share that the book of i watch: Transforming India” 2007 edition has been formulated  in a very concrete, simple and concise manner by a team of intellectuals through extensive research work in these focused areas .This book is available in 13 indian languages.  

Focus of ” i watch -Transforming India”:  

Human Resource , Education & Training: Holistic human development , education matrix of India, primary education & 100% functional literacy , Vocational education & training-the real winner for India, Advantage of enterprise skill development  & vocational education.

Employment Generation: HRD-Employment & Unemployment, Employment matrix of India, Employment generation thru’ VET, Employment generation through SME’s, Employemnt Generation implementation of VET.   

Economy & Enterprise: The real & virtual India, Poverty line & related data, How to plans for world markets? A chek list, Definition of Small medium enterprise, India must become an international Hub, Important of SMEs. China-India comparison chart, catch me if you can, comparision with selected countries.

Governance & Administration: the India you may not know, Transforming India: Agenda for change, Economic & business reform, Governance & administration of India, Good governance can transfer India into a superpower, Good governance + Effective administration = Zero corruption, World class governance-why & how India must do it.   

Edited, Published and Printed for i Watch by Krishan Khanna.   i Watch – Education 1st , 

Kindly contact me for complete information & details of i watch-Transformaing India book. 

Ajay Singh Niranjan

i Watch – Education First – Transforming India

Email :  ajay_uor (at) yahoo (dot) com

********************************************** Knowledge and ignorance are the two unborn ones. One is the ruler and the other, the ruled. Apart from these two, there is another who is also unborn and who is connected with the enjoyer and his enjoyment. And then there is the infinite self, the universal form, who is non-doer. When one knows this triad, one has known Brahman (cosmic consciousness).”- Upanishad

Effective Artciles which align to above article. Kindly link and share your expereince.

~Ajay Singh Niranjan ~   

Five focus areas of the knowledge paradigm: NKC

March 1, 2007

 Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high …– Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore

The National Knowledge Commission is a high-level advisory body to the Prime Minister of India, with the objective of transforming India into a knowledge society.

The overarching aim of the National Knowledge Commission is to enable the development of a vibrant knowledge based society. This entails both a radical improvement in existing systems of knowledge, and creating avenues for generating new forms of knowledge.Greater participation and more equitable access to knowledge across all sections of society are of vital importance in achieving these goals.In view of the above, the NKC seeks to develop appropriate institutional frameworks to:

  • Strengthen the education system, promote domestic research and innovation, facilitate knowledge application in sectors like health, agriculture, and industry.
  • Leverage information and communication technologies to enhance governance and improve connectivity.
  • Devise mechanisms for exchange and interaction between knowledge systems in the global arena.

It covers sectors ranging from education to e-governance in the five focus areas of the knowledge paradigm:

Kindly download these beautiful papers : Full Report  

All chapters


Access : Literacy,Language,Translation,Libraries Networks, Portals

Concepts: School Education ,Vocational Education, Higher Education, Medical Education ,Legal Education, Management Education, Engineering Education, Open and Distance Education

Creation : Science and Technology,Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs),Innovation, Entrepreneurship

Application: Traditional Knowledge ,Agriculture 

Services: e-Governance 


E-Governance, Traditional Knowledge, Agriculture, Rural Sector and Small and Medium Scale Enterprises, Higher Education, Literacy

Reference: –

Report :

Focus Areas:

Resources :

********************************************** Knowledge and ignorance are the two unborn ones. One is the ruler and the other, the ruled. Apart from these two, there is another who is also unborn and who is connected with the enjoyer and his enjoyment. And then there is the infinite self, the universal form, who is non-doer. When one knows this triad, one has known Brahman (cosmic consciousness).”- Upanishad

Effective Artciles which align to above article. Kindly link and share your expereince.

~Ajay Singh Niranjan ~

Capitalism can solve poverty: Narayana Murthy

February 15, 2007

Infosys Technologies chief mentor NR Narayana Murthy says capitalism is the only resort for India to solve its problem of poverty, even as he finds “serious crisis of moral dimension” in most Indian leaders.The non-executive chairman of one of India’s largest and most admired software companies also advocates some radical economic reforms such as hire and fire policy, privatisation and foreign investment in retail trade industry. “If India has to solve its problems of poverty, we have to embrace capitalism. I believe that is the only hope we have,” Murthy said to a private news channel. “Capitalism is about providing equal opportunity for everybody and to make sure that people have incentives to perform better and better. It also thrives in an environment of competition,” he said. “Let’s remember that all countries which embraced communism have failed. Even in Cuba the only person that Fidel Castro could trust was his brother,” he said and suggested that capitalism responded to human nature better. and more…. ( from TNN)


Exclusive Chat: Narayana Murthy


Karan Thapar: Hello and welcome to Devil’s Advocate. As we enter 2007, is India pursuing the right policy to eradicate poverty and encourage development? That’s the key issue that I shall raise today with one of the country’s top industrialists, the founding Chairman of Infosys, N R Narayana Murthy.

Mr Narayana Murthy, just over two years ago you said: “I believe that if India has to solve its problem of poverty, we have to embrace capitalism. Ensure that jobs are created and make sure that market-driven policies are accepted. I believe that is the only hope we have.” Do you still stand by that?

Narayana Murthy: Oh, absolutely. I entirely agree with that, because after all at the end of the day, the responsibility of the government is to ensure that people are happy and prosperous. And if people want to be prosperous, you have to have economic growth. And for that, you have to encourage entrepreneurship and that means creation of new jobs. And second, of course, is access to healthcare, education, nutrition and shelter.

Karan Thapar: You also said, “A socialist system will not succeed because people need opportunities, incentives and competition to better themselves.” And that, you added, “is the essence of capitalism.” Is it your belief that capitalism better understands and, therefore, better responds to human nature?

Narayana Murthy: Capitalism is about providing equal opportunity for everybody and to make sure that people have incentives to perform better and better. Capitalism also thrives in an environment of competition. So, it is very, very important for us to create an environment where there is intense competition among people and where there is opportunity for everybody to succeed and the results are shared by every body.

Karan Thapar: It sounds as if you are saying that human beings perform best when they get rewards and when they know that they will make a profit and earn an income. Give them that income and they will perform miraculously.

Narayana Murthy: Oh, yes. Let’s remember that all countries, which embraced Communism, have failed. Even in Cuba, the only person that Fidel Castro could trust was his brother. There was nobody else in the whole country that he could trust to hand over the government when he was not well. That clearly says that Communism as a system has failed miserably.

Please read full interview at:


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~Ajay Singh Niranjan ~


How India can be the most innovative place on earth

February 9, 2007

by Anand V Chhatpar

Innovate India. Innovate!

Today our target should not be to serve 300 of the Fortune 500 companies, but to be 300 of the Fortune 500 companies. We can, we will, and we are taking action towards making India the most innovative place on earth.

Indians are naturally creative and intellectual. Our heritage is rich with diverse thoughts, ideas and prominent scientists. Our culture has taught us tolerance and positivity in the face of adversity.  

There is nothing stopping us from channeling our creativity into innovation for the world. Let us learn the best from the West, and enhance it with our eastern mindset and give back to the whole world. Its time for this giant nation to stop following and start leading.

The author is CEO, BrainReactions LLC, and has been named among the Top 5 entrepreneurs in the US under the age of 25 by BusinessWeek.


I lived in India for 19 years, and feel fortunate for my wide range of experiences in this blessed land. Born in a business family with a silver spoon, I never had any shortage of resources for learning and growing.

I grew up with the strict discipline enforced by my parents and grandparents and the high standards set by them. I was a class topper all throughout my primary and secondary school, and received tremendous love and support from my teachers and friends.

After my 10th grade, when I went for my diploma in computer engineering to Government Polytechnic, Mumbai, I got to see a very different side of life. I learnt to do hard work with my hands as I learnt things like carpentry, welding, plumbing and smithy along with the basics of technology and engineering.

I commuted in crowded local trains for one and a half hours each way every day to and fro my college. I still remember sitting around a table in the canteen with friends who had come from various remote villages of the state and who were used to studying under the street lights because they did not have an electric connection in their house.

I had friends who had gone through great troubles to afford their education. These sons and daughters of farmers and labourers had, through their perseverance and undying hope, reached a stage where they could finally rub shoulders with the rich kids who could simply get in to colleges by paying huge donations. I knew that a change was in the air.

During my diploma days, I had both a research-oriented focus and an entrepreneurial drive. My internal drive has always been to do something different and stand out from the crowd. I found that many well-established people in India are closed to new ideas. There was often a cynicism about India in those days, and people who I approached with radical and modern ideas used to discourage me or be critical of these ideas.

My friends — Atul, Sidharth — and I, using our own research and self-study, started a software and Web development company while I was still pursuing my diploma. We did some innovative work for the time, but always had trouble collecting payments from our clients.

Indian businessmen have the tendency to bargain hard and yet not pay on time, or sometimes, not pay at all.

To pursue my academic and research interests, since it was not possible to do research at the undergraduate level in India, I decided to go to America. The environment I found there has completely changed my thinking.

I became great friends with Osman Ozcanli who was an international student from Turkey, and an incredibly creative and positive thinker. Constantly challenging himself to think of ways to improve everything he touched, his imagination and ‘everything is possible’ attitude were very inspiring for me.

Having made friends who had come to America from all around the world, I got a truly global perspective. Religion, race, and socioeconomic class become completely unimportant to me as soon as I realised that people are part of this global human race before anything else, and people who are essentially good and care for others are respected everywhere.

Osman and I together designed several inventions and participated in invention and business plan contests at our university. We lost several times with multiple different invention entries. “We never give up” was our motto. It took us 12 prototypes before we could finally win the Tong Prototype Prize in 2002 with the OZ Pack, our ergonomically designed stationery binder.

Osman went home to Turkey that summer and found manufacturers for the product. He even found retail distribution through a chain store called Migros. All of a sudden our product was in 72 retail outlets all over Turkey and we could see people using it. It is the most amazing sight to see random people on the street carrying around and using a product that you designed.

I also found stores in the United States to test market our OZ Pack. We both had no business education, but we were making it happen. Action, I realised, can make any idea a reality. Just start and keep trying until you get what you want.

Osman and I also did an internship together at a place called Concept Studio in a company called Pitney Bowes. There, we learnt the formal techniques of customer-centric innovation, ethnographic research, brainstorming, prototyping, and market validation.

I realised that innovation can be systematically taught. I wished there was access to such knowledge in India, where the potential for improvement and innovation was much greater. We had the good fortune of working under great mentors: Tom Foth, Brian Romansky and Jonathan Wolfman, all of whom are prolific inventors.

I filed several invention disclosures while working there and now have four issued US patents to my name, whereas three more are pending.

I also learned in Pitney Bowes how corporations stifle creativity. Outside our small Concept Studio subgroup, people used to work in cubicles. They had to follow policy manuals for everything: even the margin on the letterheads was pre-decided for them and they had to go through political hoops to get approvals for almost every decision.

When Osman graduated and moved to Chicago to work with Inventables, we could not keep the OZ Pack going. However, brainstorming and innovation was in my blood now and I could no longer imagine working in a traditional type of job. I used to organise brainstorming parties on campus calling some of my most creative friends and people that I had met at the invention contests.

At one such party, Nate Altfeather, winner of the $10,000 Schoof’s Prize for Creativity, suggested that I start such brainstorming for companies as a professional service. No such business existed at the time, so it was a doubly exciting project for me.

Nate and I formed BrainReactions LLC to tap into creative young minds and innovate new ideas for companies. We had to do several brainstorms for free for non-profit clients and friends before we had improved the process to a level where we were able to approach for-profit corporations to be our clients.

The breakthrough came when after making over 30 phone calls, Tom Foth, my mentor from Pitney Bowes, referred us to the vice president at Bank of America, and we had our first paying client!

Bank of America was impressed with our work and we got great testimonials from them that got us attention from the media and from other companies who wanted to try us out.

I was still a student then, attending my college classes every day, and immediately after class making phone calls to CEOs and vice presidents of Fortune 500 companies to run my business over nights and weekends. Over time, we improved our systems for finding and ranking our idea generators which ensured superb results for our customers.

The idea generators we had chosen were also winning invention contests and business plan contests after we had found them through our system, so that further validated that our process worked. Our successes with new clients made our marketing change from lots of outgoing cold-calls to returning incoming contact requests through our Web site.

I was at the risk of dropping out from college during my final year, but I stuck with it, spending almost no time studying during the last semester. It was a time when I had stopped caring about my GPA, which was a perfect 4.0 at the time, so it dropped minutely by the time I graduated and became full-time with BrainReactions.

Within six months of being the full-time CEO at BrainReactions, I was named by BusinessWeek as one of the top 25 young business leaders in the US, and the readers of the magazine voted me into the top 5, with me being the only Indian in that group.

The following month, we received opportunities to work for the United Nations and were also invited to Japan by the Japanese External Trade Organisation. The Council for Competitiveness invited me to share ideas on how to make America more innovative and competitive globally.

Meanwhile, I came to India to visit my parents and was awestruck by the development taking place in the top-tier cities. The IT/BPO sector had started booming, high paying call centre jobs were available to graduates straight out of college and there was new infrastructure being built everywhere.

India’s top 5 per cent now had the same infrastructure that was available in Silicon Valley. Their payscales had increased but their job satisfaction had decreased, with peak attrition rates as high as 43 per cent.

Therein lay a huge opportunity. The people in Bangalore used the same Dell Inspiron computers, the same broadband Internet connections, the same Microsoft Windows platform PCs, the same programming languages and databases used in Silicon Valley, but the people in the US were making multi-billion dollar Google, while the people in India were still testing office applications and doing grunt-work for American companies. Why?

In fact, almost 40 per cent of Silicon Valley start-ups have been formed by Indian entrepreneurs. Why then were the entrepreneurs in India still doing work on contract in the service sector and not innovating products for the world?

Globally, India was being heralded as a software powerhouse, but I did not have a single programme on my computer that was made by an Indian company. It was time to change things. Indians deserved to have access to the same tools, techniques, processes and training for innovation that was available in the US.

India can be the knowledge powerhouse of the world. We cannot only make products for the world, but create jobs in other countries, especially in the US. My mission was now to drive this change.

With the help of Atul Khekade, my friend from college and my business partner from my earliest start-up, I established a programme called Innovation Trip that could take Indian leaders to the US and get the best of breed experts to train them on all the various topics required to establish a successful innovation pipeline.

MIT and Stanford are considered the innovation capitals within the US, so we decided that those have to be on the tour. To present the workshop on finding disruptive innovation opportunities, we approached Innosight, the company of Clay Christensen, who has written the book on the topic.

Similarly, for teaching customer-centric innovation methods to act on the new market opportunity, we brought in Icnivad that had established itself as the leading innovation house for knowledge processes within Fortune 100 companies.

At Stanford, we brought in Originaliti, a well-known Silicon Valley-based company that would provide insight and training on creating a culture of creativity and innovation within the company.

Finally, we brought in Ken Tanner, author of several books on employee retention and recruiting excellence, to present a workshop on retaining employees and on anti-poaching, which is a huge problem in India.

With the programme in place and with the support of Kiran Karnik, president of the National Association of Software and Services Companies; Pradeep Gupta, CEO of Cyber Media; Pankaj Agrawala, joint secretary of IT, and other top CEOs in India, Innovation Trip has seen a prominent launch.

Today our target should not be to serve 300 of the Fortune 500 companies, but to be 300 of the Fortune 500 companies. We can, we will, and we are taking action towards making India the most innovative place on earth.

Indians are naturally creative and intellectual. Our heritage is rich with diverse thoughts, ideas and prominent scientists. Our culture has taught us tolerance and positivity in the face of adversity.

There is nothing stopping us from channeling our creativity into innovation for the world. Let us learn the best from the West, and enhance it with our eastern mindset and give back to the whole world. Its time for this giant nation to stop following and start leading.

Let us say ‘no’ to grunt work, let us do something new! Innovate India. Innovate!

Source :


Top 10 Artciles which align to above article. Kindly link and share your expereince.

 * Ajay Singh Niranjan  

SWOT MATRIX of INDIA: Analysis of Indian Social- Economic- Political- Technological conditions.

January 31, 2007

Dear Friends,  

There are few questions about our complex & unique system of India. How we can change our system thinking? How we can make a synergetic triangle: Industry-GOI- Institution for co creation of knowledgeable resources for evolution of innovations. 

Root Causes – Why Plans are not execute at the bottom? Constrains – Where are missing link?

Strategy & tactics – What is the action plans? Methods-how these actions plans execute for achieving the end Goal.

Kindly download one page colored framework of SWOT MATRIX of INDIA. URL: syenrgetic-trinangle-industry-government-instituion.docsyenrgetic-trinangle-industry-government-instituion.doc  


                  Industry-GOVERNMENT -institution


  • Highly educated , skilled ,young, capable & dynamic  human resources
  • English speaking & analytical students
  • World class business-social-spiritual –political leader, Professor, scientist, Manager-Doctor-Engineer-Civil servants etc
  • Very rich in  Natural & Living resources
  • Biodiversity & Traditional knowledge base
  • Diversity vs. Ideas-Innovation-Integration
  • Powerful spiritual strength (yoga-Ayurvada-Healing-therapy services)
  • Geographical location (whole markets are shifting toward Asian nations)
  • India Strategic position at various platforms
  • Big democracy, Big market & free media
  • Range of emerging professional champions
  • IT & Software superpower


  • Lack of trained & skill work force  
  • Small supply of specialize professional
  • Lack of spirits of entrepreneurship, patriotisms and leadership skill
  • Lack of effective & execution framework
  • Lack of Indian management models
  • Lack of transparency-Trust-Responsibility
  • Lack of learning habits & Team work spirit
  • Fear of sharing knowledge & taking risk
  • Thinking win-lose   lose-win   look-outside
  • Slow absorption of Innovation & change
  • Lack of Indian management models
  • Absence of greater technology impetus
  • Unawareness: Quality-Standardization
  • Lack of Emotional-Spiritual development
  • Rush of getting high marks not Development
  • Blindly respect anything taught by elders

THREATS (Internal & external): 

  • A feeling of unstable government
  • Self centered political leadership
  • Slow & Dysfunctional judiciary and corrupt law enforcers
  • Regulation, protection and restriction
  • Mechanistic -stable-Layered-complex system
  • Corruption, Ignorance & Complacency
  • High competitive & marketing forces
  • To patent Indian intellectual property by outsider (unawareness about own research)
  • Fast change Internet-information technology& new Inventions-Technology-Innovations
  • Diversity vs. Imbalance- clashes
  • Regional-Religion-caste-culture conflicts
  • Migration of all branch to software job
  • Job seeking mind sets, not job creator
  • Unnecessary social pressure on students
  • Excessive rich & powerful mindsets


  • Big potential market in education Sector & emerging new market Segment in services (create it)   
  • General Agreement of trade on Services
  • Research & Development capability
  • Generate intellectual property
  • Resource Building capacity
  • Competition- cost – Quality service

  • Collaboration : win-win thinking
  • Hybrid solution–balancing & blending
  • Tourism, health sector, food processing
  • Rural economy development & social transformation ( PURA model )
  • Need  modernization of infrastructure , Library and laboratory
  • Internet institute network & e-Library
  • Councilors and student advisors

India has lots of weakness but this is a space of thinking (new Ideas or new perceptions), understand it as a space of opportunities and transform into strength.  

Note: Please send your suggestions, experiences & questions for improvement of this SWOT MATRIX of India. 

Ajay Singh Niranjan (

Deeshaa – Transforming Rural India

January 29, 2007

Rural Infrastructure and Services Commons

RISC Schematic Presentation

The problem of the economic development of large underdeveloped economies present unique challenges that require innovative solutions. In an age of increasing specialization, there is a critical need for integration to supplement the specialization. Economies are complex, nonlinear systems and just as they cannot be adequately described by partitioning them into subsystems and analyzing them piecemeal, so also their problems cannot be addressed by partial interventions. This is because the subsystems of complex non-linear systems interact strongly with one another, and even the most carefully thought through partial solution often fails to achieve its intended goal.

The aim of RISC is to address the problems of one such complex nonlinear system — the rural Indian economy — and to outline a solution that addresses the problem of economic growth comprehensively by accomplishing a set of interlinked transitions to a more efficient equilibrium. Economic development is multi-faceted — demographic, technological, social, political, military, institutional, informational, ideological, and so on. Given binding resource constraints, the optimal solution requires the power of ideas for it to be feasible.

The RISC Paradigm

The economic development of India’s 600 million strong rural population presents formidable challenges and also great opportunities. An institutional innovation called RISC — Rural Infrastructural & Services Commons — is presented that has the potential for achieving the multi-faceted goals of sustainable economic development.

Fundamentally, the specific market failure that RISC addresses is that of coordination failure. RISC is designed to coordinate the activities of a host of entities—commercial, governmental, NGOs. It synchronizes investment decisions so as to reduce risk. It essentially acts as a catalyst that starts off a virtuous cycle of introducing efficient modern technology to improve productivity that increases incomes and thus the ability of users to pay for the services, and so on. It creates a mechanism that reduces transaction costs and therefore improves the functions of markets.

Revolutions in the information and communications technologies (ICT) have the potential to remove the barriers to information asymmetries that were impeding the working of markets that are critical for economic growth. The forces of globalization have created opportunities for the integration of rural populations in a larger marketplace than was ever available to them before.

Economic development is both the cause and consequence of urbanization. RISC achieves the urbanization of the rural population without requiring the massive and unsustainable rural-urban migration. It brings urbanization to the rural population by making available to them the full set of services and amenities that are normally available only in urban locations. It works within the constraints of limited resources by concentrating them in specific locations to obtain economies of scale, scope, and agglomeration. It helps lift the population out of a development trap by making available to them the benefits of technological advances and the increased access to global markets that globalization promises.

RISC follows the logical trend of moving away from vertically integrated institutions to one of horizontal segmentation and specialization. Thus, conceptually and operationally, a RISC has two levels: the lower one is the infrastructure level (henceforth, the I-level) which consists of power, broadband telecommunications, and the physical plant (building, water, air-conditioning, sanitation, security); and above that the user services level (henceforth, the S-level) which consists of all services that are relevant to rural economic activity such as market making, financial intermediation, education and library, health, social services, governmental services, and so on.

The I-level provides a reliable, standardized, competitively-priced infrastructure platform. This is achieved by the coordinated and cooperative actions of firms that specialize in the component activities. Co-located on the S-level are all kinds of firms that provide user services. The presence of the I-level reduces their costs and therefore the prices that the users face. Economies of scope and agglomeration are obtained by the presence of the variety of different service providers.

Given that rural populations are very poor, it is reasonable to expect that the aggregate demand of a single village for any single service will be very low. However, the aggregate demand for, say, a 100 villages for a single service could be significant. Aggregating the demand for many different kinds of services of the same 100 villages would translate into lot of services. These services would require infrastructural inputs which can be commercially and sustainably supplied. The total rural population of India can be covered by about 6,000 RISCs each servicing the needs of 100,000 people. The economies of scale are obtained by implementing a few thousand RISCs. Access to a RISC for any rural person is only a ‘bicycle commute’ away.

RISC is not an attempt at social engineering through centralized planning. Neither is it another model of Internet kiosk or telecenter. It aims to solve a problem by appealing to the profit motives of all participants, be they private sector, NGOs, or the public sector. The good that will surely come out of it can only be attributed to Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

The foundational idea upon which the proposed solution stands is that of the emergence of complex adaptive behavior from the interaction of agents following simple rules within a sufficiently rich environment. The solution provides a balance between the forces of cooperation and competition, between standardization and specialization, between private and public action, between generalization and particularization, between globalization and localization, between unity and diversity. It is an idea that is at once both blindingly obvious and fleetingly elusive.

Are you interested :Write to us for more information on RISC.

Download the concept paper on RISC.

Join the Deeshaa Community —  /

Education First – Making INDIA a Knowledge Economy

January 28, 2007

It is necessary to first understand the entire “Matrix” in education. Even after 59 years of Independence, the following situation remains as far as the Human Capital Development of our country is concerned:-

  1. Drop-out rate in schools from KG to 10+2 is (including those who never attended school) 90% to 94%.  
  2. China has about 1.80 million schools, while we have in India about 1.20 million schools!
  3. The “Governance” in Government run schools is very low. In many cases teachers are absent (15% to 60% absenteeism) from schools in rural and urban schools of India and are paid full wages and perks in spite of this! Studies have shown that even the poorest of the poor rather send their children to un-aided schools where fees have to be paid and not to government run free schools. The quality of schooling of such unaided schools is higher than Government schools although the salary of Government teachers is two to three times higher than the teachers of the un-aided schools.See articles and solutions on governance at
  4. The existing Indian definition of Literacy (if you can write your name you are literate) needs to be amended to International Standards. This criteria is used in the census for determining the literacy rate.
  5. As per the Ministry of HRD the present illiteracy is ONLY 37% or 430 million people, while as per UNICEF and UNDP it is nearly 60% or 650 million people. China has a Literacy rate of about 93%.
  6. The first step of making India a knowledge economy is literacy and needs to be given A1 priority.
  7. The total amount spent on education is about Rs. 91,000 crores per year. 15% by the Central Govt. and 85% by the State Governments The Education Cess will collect another Rs. 7000 crores per year. This is about 3.3% of GDP. The MHRD has calculated that another Rs. 40,000 crores per year would be required only for additional requirements for Primary Education!
  8. We estimate that another Rs. 100,000 crores are required per year just to have reasonable quality of Primary and Secondary education, up to Class 10th., which is where the Central and State Governments should concentrate for the next 10 to 20 years, or till we have at least 95% Literacy and at least 80% of the population who are completing the High School stage or Class 10th.
  9. As per our estimates the total expenditure for education is nearly 8% of GDP, about 3.3% from Government and about 4.7% from private participation. This includes funding of unaided schools and colleges + bribes and capitation fees + payment for students studying abroad + tuition classes +coaching classes +private I.T. & Software training institutes. Most of this private funding is confined to urban areas where only 30% stay.
  10. About 7% to 8% of the youth who finish the 10+2 stage (pre-university) enter the17, 960 colleges of India. 70% of all graduates are B.A. or Arts graduates. Is this relevant today? Most of these so called graduates are not-employable.
  11. Of all new employment taking place nearly 60% are self employed. About New Employment – 1% is with government, 2% with the private ‘organized sector’ and 97% with the ‘unorganized sector’.
  12. Presently there is little connect between education and employment generation & quality of Life
  13. The employers associations, chambers of commerce and other business organizations are fragmented. There is no “National Common Minimum Program” for “education and training of manpower” in India. In most developed and developing countries the Chambers of Commerce (who represent the employers and business) Lead from the front.
  14. About 26 million people are added every year to the existing education system, which is like adding another Australia + Hong Kong + Singapore & UAE per year!
  15. Presently both the Central Government as well as the State Governments are running in Financial Deficits, of about 9% to 11% of GDP, so the question of additional financing for education will strain not only the existing budgets but also put pressure on other sectors, where funds are being presently allocated.
  16. “Licence Raj” runs all Higher & Technical Education in India. Let us Bench-Mark with USA, Germany and Japan, the three largest economies of the World account for nearly 50% of the world’s GDP.  Do their governments exert similar controls as we have in India? Can we learn from them? There is fierce competition between the institutions in these countries for excellence!
  17. China has about 900 Universities, while we in India have 362 Universities. USA has 3600 and Japan has 4000!
  18. In India, the fees of the courses, pay-scales to the teachers, appointment of the head of the Institution and the syllabus, are decided by the 58 or more Central and State-Government Boards of Education. Will this create innovation, excellence  and world class students?
  19. The Coaching Business is getting bigger than the Education Business, entrance examinations for the IIT’s, IIM’s and a few prestigious  management schools attract about 600,000 applications (who spend nearly Rs.2.00 lac each for pre-coaching, amounting to Rs.12,000 crores per year, for 6000 seats. These institutions spend hardly Rs.800 to Rs.1,100 crores per year, as their teaching budgets!
  20. While 75% to 85% the youth of the developed and developing world learn a skill or competence or trade between the ages of 14 to 35, by Vocational Education & training, in India it is hardly covers 3% to 4% of the population!
  21. India has about 5000 ITI’s (Ministry of Labour) and about 5000 Vocational schools (Ministry of HRD), while China has about 500,000 senior secondary vocational schools!
  22. India has 300 million able bodied unemployed between the ages of 18 to 50, but they have no skill sets and therefore not employable! Employers in India are facing a huge shortage of skilled manpower. Wages and salaries in India, of skilled manpower are going up too fast. India will not be able to take advantage of the demographic profile of its population, if the youth do not receive relevant and quality Education & Training.
  23. We have not seen any co-ordination between the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of HRD as far as VET planning on a National level, is concerned
  24. We in India have NOT still appreciated the fact that, world wide, Education is 5 times or 500% bigger than I.T. or software!
  25. India can become an Educational Hub for the world and earn US$ 100 billion per year, after 10 to 20 years! We need to start now, but remove “Licence Raj” first, as was done for business in 1991! India has 7,700 foreign students while Australia has 383,000 foreign students!
  26. Because of the “Licence Raj” in Higher and Technical Education, it is estimated that nearly 70,000 to 90,000 students leave India every year for studying abroad. At any given time these 320,000 students cost the country a foreign exchange out flow of nearly US$9.6 billion per year or nearly Rs. 45,000 crores per year, enough to build 40 IIM’s or 20 IIT’s per year. Nearly 1,20,00 students leave India every year for foreign studies.
  27. The present problem of reservation will not solve the needs and aspirations of the youth. India needs a larger number of educational Institutions, seats and higher quality in the area of Higher & Technical education. Rationing, quotas and reservation can never address the actual situation. The Central and State governments are strapped for funds even for Primary and Secondary education. The solution lies in complete decontrol of all forms of Higher & Technical education; the same way as business was delicensed in1991!
  28. Since 1947 we have tried reservation and controls in the allocation of steel, cement, colour TV’s, airline tickets, cars, scooters, etc and have failed. Only increase of supply and decontrol has finally solved these issues.

If INDIA has to become a Knowledge Economy we need to do the following:

  1. Aim for 95% to 100% Literacy in the next 10 years
  2. Decontrol and involve the management of all primary schools to the local bodies such as Panchayats, Village Groups, Municipalities and local Citizen Groups. Allow the community to manage.
  3. Consider the use and issue of “Education Coupons” for school children, so that they can choose the schools of their choice and funding from the government, which would have been dispersed for the funding of Government run schools in rural and urban India, should be paid out. See
  4. Scrap “Licence Raj” in Higher & Technical Education, after and including class 11th, to allow innovation, creativity and excellence in Education. See
  5. Ensure that 80% to 90% of the population in the age group of 14 years to 50 years goes in for some sort of relevant Vocational Education & Training. See
  6. Allow starting of Enterprise Skills Education, ESD, from Class 5th to the 12th. This will teach the youth about how the real world works. Only 100 hours per year required. Nearly 60% of the workforce in India is self-employed. See
  7. Start Prevocational classes from Class 8th. Have Vocational Counsellors in all Higher Seconadary Schools. Upgrade all Higher Seconadry Schools for Vocational Education & Training.
  8. Have a dynamic interaction between all stake holders, Academia-Industry-Business-R&D-Chambers of Commerce-Student bodies-Parents organizations-Civil society and NGO’s. Chambers of Commerce, who represents the employers and business, must lead from the front.
  9. Allow private finance and participation in all sectors of education, till we reach the goals as mentioned under item 8 in section one above.
  10. Allow tax breaks and incentives for private and NRI funding, for the next 20 years or till we achieve bench marks as mentioned under item 8 in section one above.

                                                 Source : i watch – Transforming India

Kindly contact me forcomplete information & details of  i watch-Transfomring India book.

Ajay Singh Niranjan (

i watch Education 1st

551, 2nd Floor , Mukherji Nagar, Delhi -110009

Turning India Vision 2020 into reality – role of technology financing

January 28, 2007

Dr. Abdul Kalam speaks, writes and works having a live vision at the back of his mind “Be India a Developed Nation“. The action plan to realise this blue print of mind into reality must have on the top of its itinerary ‘the technology’. Grooming ‘technology’ from seed upto a fruit bearing tree is an art, science and a specialised enterprise in itself.

Like in other businesses, finance is an important element here too. However, the key to success lies in assessing where, when and how to facilitate entry for money in the process of technological project realization. The author has a wide exposure to the whole tree of ‘technological growth process’ in various capacities – a grass root scientist, technocrat, industrial consultant and writer. It is with this backdrop that he enumerates the basic ingredients involved in making a technology idea grow into a full business, by ensuring the entry of financial sources at pre-assessed stages.

A vision is a picture of what is possible or what is desired in a longer-term future. It could be of one individual in origin or it could be a collective in its conception. The Technology Vision 2020 was a massive national exercise implemented by Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) during the years 1994 and 1995 and was released to the nation through a form of 25 documents on 2nd August, 1996 by the then Prime Minister. It resulted due to the tireless efforts of 500 persons with inputs from about 5000 persons from different fields of India.

A brief presentation of the findings of vision exercise along with several other linked factors such as the concept of developed India, economic issues, social issues and also certain implementational issues, have been brought out in a book “India 2020″ by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam along with the author.

Further elaboration starting with the vision and also dealing with several aspects of important interconnected policies and procedures as well as the processes of science and technology and human dimensions, have been brought out by the author in a book ‘Empowering Indians’ (revised reprint 2002 with a foreward by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam).

These two books contain substantive information about the details of the vision and also the various possibilities of implementation. The book referred to in Ref.2 has also described some of the projects in which TIFAC is involved in attempting to realise the vision into action as a major demonstrative exercise.

Much more can be seen in the TIFAC website: , which is continually updated. Several other parameters such as technology capabilities, organisational capabilities, project management market research, etc. are also important in realising the vision. Therefore this paper briefly addresses the role of technology financing.

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) Technology idea to business: The essential steps

Often many persons including scientists and technologists tend to believe that a scientific or technological idea if pursued with sufficient funding and support, would automatically result in a commercial operation. Many also tend to think that basic research to technology to commerce is a straight forward linear process given enough time and money.

In actual life, science and technology are distinct elements though interwined. Technology and technological skills and knowledge are not automatic input-output derivatives of basic scientific research. These are discussed in some detail in Ref.2 citing a number of quotes and references from scholars. In actual practice, technology is complex and tacit (i.e. embodied in persons and organisations).

There are many different strands of technology in a single product or service. Therefore, having an excellence in one technological element alone does not assure a commercial product, let alone a commercial success. Based on the experiences of TIFAC and also of Technology Development Board (TDB), Prof. VS Ramamurthy, Secretary, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India often emphasises in a number of meetings and speeches that while financing is an important component, technology development does not take place merely by stepping up finance.

There are many other prior activities which need to be done if technology development can mature into a good business activity. It is precisely in this area where TIFAC has done considerable amount of work during the past 14 years. In the subsequent paragraphs the author will try to compress a few important issues relating to converting of technological ideas into business operations.

In actual life, science and technology are distinct elements though intertwined. Technology and technological skills and knowledge are not automatic input-output derivatives of basic scientific research

Let us refer to Fig.1. The x-axis of the Figure is time. The quantity of time will depend upon the product or service under consideration. For a completely new area time at the right hand end i.e., the time for “produce and supply to market”, could even be 7 years. In a number of cases in industry it would be of the order of ½ – 3 years for incremental innovations.

In fact, a good business strategy should be to have a number of technologically induced innovative products with different cycle times for realisation, so that in the overall, the technology development (which requires financing) will be continuously giving financial outputs through delivery to market, thus not becoming a drain on the overall to the company. This may be called “technology development diversification strategy”.

techfin1.jpg (43841 bytes)
Fig 1

If a company does not have even a plan of having a few innovations in the existing product line or otherwise every 2 to 3 years, it is very unlikely the company can be successful in a present day competitive business world. It is necessary for a company or an entrepreneuer to look ahead in time as to what would be the status a few years from now. This looking ahead will help in initiating actions right now. This is where the role of technology financing starts.

Having identified a few product or service segments for the coming few years, the question (before the company or entrepreneur) comes as to what we will do now. How do we reaslise the desired change in the existing product line or process or even in terms of introducing new products/services. Often this process of looking ahead and deciding action for today, is an iterative process.

A technological idea or a business idea could give some idea as to what a future product can be. Then cycling back whether one should have different options, one would modify the product idea or service idea and finally arrive at a few target end results from a time equal to plus x years (i.e. in the near term future).

Having done this the technology development or business development starts. That is where the problem also starts. Invariably for such items which are innovative at the given point of time (in the present) there will be a relatively high degree of business and market uncertainty as well as product and technical uncertainties and perceived technology risks.

If these are very low at given point of time (in the present) there will be a relatively high degree of business and market uncertainty as well as product and technical uncertainties and perceived technology risks. If these are very low at given point of time (now) that means the product and services are already well established in market and therefore there is no great innovation involved. Actions relating to such products will be mainly issues like cutting costs or by trying some other business strategies. In such cases normally the competitor will also be doing the same and one cannot sustain long with such non-innovative actions.

Therefore, those who want to have a good business for the future where his or her company will have a specific commanding role or a powerful role or atleast a role in which the company fortunes are not fluctuating too fast then the company has to learn to take up just now in the present new activities where there are some higher business and market uncertainties and which are likely to become desired products or services a few years from now.

Often in India since business groups and technology development groups even within the same company tend to work differently in separate compartments each one worries only of his own part. If the technology is from an external institution to the company or the entrepreneur, then such “separatist” perceptions are often worse.

Normally technology generators do not think of all the options available for a business company or an entrepreneur and try to push their own specialisations; this is but natural. Similarly the business person or entrepreneur looks at only the investment aspects, markets and returns. But as explained above, for a futuristic product even with small changes at a future time of two to three years from now, it is necessary to study the technological aspects and the business aspects connected with these changes right now and take action. This zone is close to the origin of the Fig.1.

In the figure, technology, product and service uncertaintly is in the upper part of the y axis and business and market part of the uncertainty is to be in the lower part of the y axis. The correct management strategy should be to look at both parts of the curves (i.e. upper and lower) together.

If technology funding is done for a future product, without considering the lower half of the figure, even though in the time axis over a few years the technical uncertainties will come down, business uncertainty may not have come down because market and other issues have not been factored in the technology development. And, vice versa, if only a business strategy is done with marketing and other aspects without considering technological aspects on the assumption that the technology generator can be approached a few years from now after the market development and business development steps are ready, then we may be surprised to know that technological availability is poor or uncertainties are high. Then again, the lost time cannot be easily regained. Therefore, the correct management strategy is to grapple with technological uncertainties and technological risks as well as business and market uncertainties at the same time well in advance of the time in which we anticipate results to flow.

 In other words, in the figure the left side of the funnel has to be dealt with pushing all the stake holders together inside the broad end of the funnel, so to say, figuratively thus making them a collective group to weigh technology options, to look at business aspects, etc. These functions are done by TIFAC in generating a number of well-researched reports in technology areas, as technology linked business opportunities.

techfin.jpg (24657 bytes)

Some of the reports are at a relatively macro/meso level as in the case of the Technology Vision 2020 reports and most of TIFAC reports are at meso / micro level (i.e. close to action levels) as in the Techno-Market Survey reports of the TIFAC. When issues are discussed to generate such reports, even the very process of the generation of the report creates a cohesion for further forward movement into the funnel without imbalance between the technology and business aspects. These reports are available in the public domain from TIFAC and industries can use them effectively for themselves to enter into funnel and later pursue specific projects. Many of them are already doing it. It is important for entrepreneurs and business managers to do such knowledge based preparations before they go for financing of technologies.

The technology financing is not a mere exercise in calculating the returns of investment or giving money as per procedures and formats but is more complex

Again while embarking on specific projects, one has to start looking at various technical elements including intellectual property rights (IPR) and other aspects even while formulating the projects. This process will help to a great deal in reducing uncertainties and help making a forward effective movement into the funnel of uncertainty. Then, when the decision is taken to launch a project (by the entrepreneur or a company), further details can be worked out.

Often TIFAC not only helps in entering the early part of the funnel before the launch of the project through its reports but also helps the potential entrepreneur who applies for the Home Grown Technologies (HGT) Program of TIFAC or Missions such as Sugar Technology Mission, Advanced Composites Mission, etc. or a number of vision 2020 projects which range from agriculture, agro processing, health sector, textile machinery, road transport sector and several other thrust areas like energy, etc. (see for details in Ref.3). Even while these projects are formulated by the entrepreneur or company and sent to TIFAC, through further assessment, evaluation and the interactive process. TIFAC helps in narrowing many uncertainties by scoping the project.

 In fact, agencies which have funds will be able to do this well because often the potential customer would not like to spend a lot of intellectual and other managerial efforts in scoping when there is severe uncertainty about funding. That is why, the author believes the real role of a technology funder starts at a time before the line shown in the fig.1 as “launch of the project”.

But actual funding takes place after several of these evaluations and interactions. During this process the company or entrepreneur writes down the business plan and also goes through draft agreement for part funding which spells out roles of various stakeholders.

NRDC is one major facilitator in technology financing; while it can enter in any part of funnel of Fig.1, often it is better done in the middle of funnel when uncertainities are not too high

After the agreement is signed and the part fund flow begins, the role of the funder specially in the case of TIFAC changes into a different mode. Even though all the while TIFAC is a partner with the entrepreneurs and the technology generators coming up for a specific project, however, when TIFAC has funded, it assumes a special role of working closely and brings in the best experts as Project Monitoring Teams without conflict of interest with the entrepreneur and/or the company. Based on the TIFAC experience, many of the persons who have received technology finance from TIFAC have said that the role of the project monitoring group is that of counselling rather than monitoring.

It should be pointed here that there is no omnibus monitoring committee for TIFAC funded projects. Each project has a special monitoring group depending upon the expertise required and often bringing people with industrial experience and also those who can deal with end users and market segments. When these partners go further and further down the funnel from the left hand broad side of the funnel towards the narrower part in the right side, the uncertainties come down. In this process or pilot plant operations based on technological/business idea takes place, so that a stage is set for a much larger commercial operation. At this stage the companies can access Technology Development Board (TDB) or in some cases even the banks when risks have come down considerably.

Thus a crucial role of agencies like TIFAC in technology financing is to give options of ideas at an early stage through its reports and other interactions) and allow the potential companies and technology tenerators to enter the left side (broad side) of funnel in a synchronised manner and then be able to launch specific projects and work along till the uncertainties are brought down to minimum. So the technology financing is not a mere exercise in calculating the returns of investment or giving money as per procedures and formats but is more complex.

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) Technology financing sources: where and when they enter

This section describes information about various sources of financing available to an Indian company or entrepreneur and also the elements of criteria used by them.

We have described about TIFAC. It normally funds part on a soft loan basis. The projects can be a few tens of lakhs to several crores of rupees.

NRDC is one major facilitator in technology financing. While it can enter in any part of the funnel of Fig.1, often it is better done in the middle of funnel when uncertainties are not too high. NRDC can help the entrepreneur to gain some competitive time to launch commercial projects in addition to finding financing sources. NRDC would, of course, be looking at its own income as well. Projects can be a few tens of lakhs to several crores of rupees. NRDC helps in exports as well. It also helps in IPR aspects.

When uncertainties come down, and there is a greater promise of large commercial operations, go to TDB. It is better to have projects in the range of a few tens of crores of rupees. Again it is soft loan, part funding.

PATSER of DSIR is another source. Again it is better to target PATSER when you are in the middle level of the funnel. It is a part grant with royalty clauses.

There is another interesting scheme called TePP (Technopreneur Promotion Programme) jointly operated by PATSER and HGT of TIFAC. It is a small funding from several thousands to a few lakhs of rupees. Helps small individual innovators, mostly in the broad side of the funnel. Once their ideas show promise, they can try to go for PATSER or HGT.

SIDBI is another source but often in the right side (narrow side) of the funnel. It is a loan.

The author would advise entrepreneurs and companies to go for loan (soft or otherwise) rather than simple grants as it will train them to be sustainable, a feature very much needed in the competitive world.

There are also a few private sector venture capitalists and banks which are ready to fund projects. Often they are at the stage of right side of the funnel. They may be in IT and BT (Biotech) areas only. In future they may enter other areas. Other Government departments are trying to emulate TIFAC, PATSER, etc. One should look out for these.

techfin2.jpg (40209 bytes)

Since this is a changing scene, be in touch with websites like that of TIFAC which give information about financing sources and technology sources.

                                                                      Author : Dr. Y. S. Rajan

Readers are also welcome to contact the author in e-mail: & who would use the TIFAC network to assist you.

On the whole technology financing in India is fast entering a phase where industry and entrepreneurs are respected. About 85% projects funded by TIFAC, TDB and PATSER are for industry – big, small and medium. Take advantage of them, enter into development well ahead of time. Be not afraid of the broad end of uncertainties as “the early bird catches the worms”.

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) Acknowledgement

The author thanks Dr. V Siddhartha, Chairman, TIFAC-HGT Apex Board for giving material from International Society of Air Breathing Engines from which the author has adapted and further developed Fig.1

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) REFERENCES

1. Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam with Y.S. Rajan: “India 2020 : A Vision for the new Millennium”, Viking-Penguin, New Delhi (1998), (reviewed in Invention Intelligence, May-June 1999).

2. Y.S. Rajan, “Empowering Indians : with economic, business and technology strengths for the twenty-first century”, Har Anand Publications, New Delhi – Revised reprint with foreword by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, April/2002 (A review of the book appeared in Invention Intelligence, March-April, 2002).

3. Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) websites : , ,


Real & Virtual India – Transforming India

January 27, 2007

                                                   The Real India                           The Virtual India

Who stays here? People of
India in 35 states
NRI’s & PIO’s in 5 continents
Gross domestic Product US$ 692 billion about US$ 240 billion
Per Capita Earning US$ 625/year/person about US$ 10,000/year/person
Savings Per Year US$ 100 billion** about US$ 75 – 80 billion**
INDIA’s external debt US$ 121 billion N.A.
Total FDI last Year (2005) US$ 6 billion N.A.
FDI investment by NRI’s US$ 0.2 billion (in 2004) N.A.
Population 1090 million 20 – 22 millions

1. Understanding the Real and Virtual India!
There are two India’s, one where we live and the other is the Virtual India, with an estimated GDP of US $ +240 billion per year, where about 20 to 25 million NRI’s and PIO’s live.Their hearts are in India and they are emotionally tied to India. If we can attract them and woo them, they could be a good source of funding projects for India’s growth plans.

The Chinese have learnt the art of wooing and managing their NRC’s who number about 55 to 50 million. Last year the NRC’s invested about US$ 70 billion into China + Hong Kong + Macau. India, inspite of its best efforts, received only US$ 0.2 billion from NRI’s last year!

India imports nearly US$ 8 to 10 billion worth of Gold every year. This means that we have imported nearly US$ 96 to 120 billion worth of Gold, in the last 12 years, since liberalization of the economy.

We should try to find ways to ‘funnel’ this retail investment into more economical areas, to benifit the Nation and it’s people.

2. How has China managed to get large FDI inflows from the NRC’s?
Maybe, there is a lesson to be learnt by us, as to how China is able to woo its NRC’s!
The largest banks in Hong Kong, HSBC and Standard Chartered, may be able to throw some light on how the NRC’s have been able to invest so much in to China and Hong Kong.

• FDI …. means – Foreign Direct Investment • US$ 1 billion is Rs. 4900 crores
• NRI …. means – Non Resident Indian • N.A ….. means not applicable
• NRC … means – Non Resident Chinese • **means , estimated figures
• PIO …. means – People of India Origin
3. India’s POT of GOLD —how can we get it back?
It is estimated that a large amount of “Indian Money”, is lying outside India, due to poor governance & administration of India and due to past regimes of controls and high taxation. If India can put its “House in Order”, to near World Class Standards, a substantial part of this money could easily come back to drive the Indian economy.

Unofficial estimates of Indian funds lying outside, range from US$ 400 billion to US$ 800 billion! India’s total foreign debt is about US$121 billion.

The interest rates are very low in the international markets and interest rates are also dropping in India. NRI’s and PIO’s would be interested to invest in Indian paper with reasonable rate of interest and attartive tax incentives.

The Indian Central and State Governments should plan for 10-15-20 year Infrastructure Bonds, with a coupon rate of 4 to 5%, both for domestic Citizens as well as for NRI’s, with tax breaks and incentives. Or it could be a floating rate, based on some standard base rate, + a premium of 100 to150 basis points.

India requires US$ 500 to US$800 billion for Education, Health Care, connecting the Water Ways and Rivers, for Ports, Airports, Railways and Roads.

After the 2nd World war, when Germany was devasted, the German Government came out with a similar scheme to build the Nation. China has had a novel scheme for many years. It may be a good time to consider such proposals. The present rate of borrowing for Infrastructure Projects is too high!

4. Only Good Governance and Effective Administration can attract higher FDI into India and induce money to flow back.

Kindly write for more complete information & details of i watch-Transformaing India booklet.

Ajay Singh Niranjan (

i watch Education 1st

551, 2nd Floor , Mukherji Nagar, Delhi -110009