Archive for the ‘Human resourse development’ Category

Indian NGOs: Learning to Walk the Line between Social Responsibility and Commercial Success

February 3, 2007

In rain-starved villages in the remote interiors of India where subsistence farming has long been the norm, farmers have been driven to debt and death by the vagaries of the weather. Uncertain monsoons have forced many farmers to choose between migration and abject poverty.

Muniyappa was one such farmer. Maintaining his 1.5 acre banana farm in the rural districts of Bangalore was becoming a struggle, one he was ready to give up for urban life. What changed his mind was a product called KB Drip, an irrigation system that ensured controlled and year-round access to water. The product was developed by IDEI, the New Delhi-based Indian arm of International Development Enterprises, a non-profit in Lakewood, Colorado, that aims to use “market principles” as it works to help rural farm families improve their agricultural productivity.

Sumita Ghose, founder and CEO of Rangsutra, a Gurgaon company that focuses on livelihood issues of rural artisans and farmers, started the company 15 years ago as a non-governmental organization (NGO). But over time, she decided the NGO model didn’t work best for Rangsutra and turned it into a business. Says Ghose: “Ownership is a very big motivating factor, and we decided to start a company with artisans and farmers as shareholders.”

IDEI and Rangsutra are part of a growing breed of nonprofits and other Indian entities working for the underprivileged that have become business-savvy and embraced modern management methods. 

India has always been a fertile ground for social issues of all hues. Its rampant poverty, unemployment, disease and illiteracy have drawn voluntary organizations and financial support from philanthropists, charities and religious trusts.

That old order is changing. Social commitment is no longer the preserve of voluntary workers. Conventional business and management metrics are being bundled into a package with unconventional means of finance to provide unique solutions for large social problems. Knowledge@Wharton spoke to NGOs and their financial sponsors who are making the transition from a “charity mode” to a professionally run model in an attempt to grasp the nature and extent of the changes underway. In the emerging NGO landscape, scale is important and so is sustainability. And both depend on an innovative and steady flow of funds.

IDEI produced a Bollywood-style film to promote the $30 KB Drip and convince farmers about the benefits of drip irrigation. It has so far sold innovative irrigation products to more than 85,000 farmers in India. It is one of the many companies backed by Acumen Fund, a global non-profit venture fund based in
New York City, and part of the Fund’s $1.4 million “water portfolio.” Varun Sahni, the Hyderabad-based country manager of Acumen Fund in India, says his fund chose to back IDEI because, “we look [to support] ventures that are going to have lasting social impact.”

Life as a corporate entity is proving to be more bountiful for Rangsutra. Its artisan shareholders invest an initial Rs. 1,000 each ($22) and have a say in the company’s operations. In its first year (2005-06), Rangsutra managed to break even with revenues of Rs. 26 lakh ($56,500). “We are planning to go over Rs. 1 crore this year ($218,000),” says Sumita.  Rangsutra is supported by Aavishkaar Venture Funds, which is described by its CEO Vineet Rai as a regular commercial fund that “wants to invest in businesses that make money with a social commitment.”

The lines between for-profit and non-profit ventures are beginning to blur. The focus everywhere, not just in
India, is on building sustainable development models. There is also an increasing realization that the traditional models have had a limited impact on the problems they sought to resolve.

A glaring example in India is the education sector. Over the years, there has been sustained government intervention through programs like the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (mass literacy movement) that aim to put every child in school. Lots of NGOs have been working in the sector for decades. And even though there are instances of remarkable achievements by individual NGOs, observers say these efforts have yet to translate into a significant nationwide impact.

A survey conducted in 2003 by Pratham, a Mumbai NGO active in the city’s slums and backed by Indian private bank ICICI Bank, is revealing. The survey says the percentage of children in the country who can read nothing and those who can read only the alphabet is about 52%; 40% drop out before completing primary school; and 11% of the children do not enter school. “We realize that a single experiment is not going to make a difference,” says Usha Rane, director-curriculum at Pratham Resource Centre. “At Pratham, we think like the government. We think mass.”

Scale Matters

The majority opinion within the social development sector is that it is not enough to create isolated models of excellence. As Rane explains, “It is necessary to create a mass movement.” Pratham operates out of 14 states. In the 10 years of its existence, it has developed reading and mathematics kits that are being used to teach the basic concepts to unlettered children. Nearly 1.6 lakh children have benefited from the program in the last three years.

Like Pratham, many NGOs are working scale into their operations. Muthu Velayuthan who has been involved with migration and livelihood issues in the villages of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, has set up a rural production and retail network under the brand “Aaharam.” He says that his work in the villages showed him the tremendous potential that is locked up in the Indian rural framework.

He developed Aaharam as a supply network that organizes small self help groups into a federation and links that to a producers’ cooperative. That cooperative in turn processes the agricultural produce into a range of agro products such as spices, pulp and juice. It also retails these in the rural market.

In its first year, Aaharam reached out to 1,000 families and created an inter-state platform of 160 federations. Its current monthly turnover is over Rs. 3 lakh ($6,500), and it is expanding its network of states and federations at great speed. “Our mandate,” says Velayuthan is “to promote traditional markets.”

Aaharam, like several such organizations, walks the line between social responsibility and commercial success. It applies corporate marketing and business strategies to further the interest of a marginalized population. And in the process, it builds economies of scale into its operations.

Devashri Mukherjee, the Mumbai-based director of venture programs at Ashoka: Innovators for the Public, a global association of social entrepreneurs based in Arlington, Virginia, points to another example: Nidaan, a company run by Arbind Singh in Bihar. Singh focuses on the very poor and marginalized sections of society in one of India‘s most backward states. He organizes them into co-operatives and links them into a marketing group that not only protects their rights but also guides them to making financially sound decisions with respect to sales and production.

What emerges from these experiences is an innovative chain of scale, professional management and funding support that links these organizations in a web of sustainable growth. Scale increases the bargaining power of groups. A professional management team sharpens focus and enhances efficiency. And finance works in two ways: as a catalyst that helps build the other links in the chain and as a growth pill that creates sustainable models out of small beginnings.

Clicking on the Right Links

Traditionally, fund support has been a key imponderable for NGOs. Since most NGOs were — and many still are — primarily dependent on grants and donations, they faced the constant threat of their money resources drying up.

There are two ways in which the sector is getting around this problem. One is through the well documented rise of micro finance institutions (MFIs). Micro credit has had its successes and failures, but MFIs have helped significantly increase awareness and interest in the rural sector. The other development is the emergence of social venture funds such as Aavishkaar and Acumen and the development of organizations that link donors to NGOs such as Give Foundation of San Jose and Kiva of San Francisco — both are active in
India.

Exploring New Organizational Models

On the one hand, these developments have deepened the financial market for the social sector. On the other, they have forced NGOs to break out of the traditional charity models that they were built upon. Says Vinay Somani who has set up Karmayog, a Mumbai-based B2B for NGOs, “Outside funding agencies bring in best practices, force NGOs to become more transparent and lead the entire sector to a system where self sustainability becomes a specified goal.”

Finance, along with scale and professional management practices, is creating a network of sustainable organizations. The Aaharam network is illustrative. Velayuthan experimented with other forms of social intervention before he decided on a group-based income generation model that according to him “seemed to be the answer to rural poverty and migration issues.”

Velayuthan was not the first to try out this model, but he designed it with commercial and contemporary management practices. He used money from microfinance institutions to set up a company, set specific production and sales targets (for example: the amount of mango pulp to be sold in a month) and ensured that the company scaled up within a given period of time. He also worked to build strong managerial skills among his team by organizing monthly meetings and routine interactions with private industry.

Aaharam’s goal is to address food, nutrition and income security of producers from resource-poor areas. It largely works with rural women, taps into their expertise to make a wide range of agro products, and helps them market these through a company within a specific district or zone. “We wanted to stop migration [out of rural areas], and the only way to do that was to create reliable income sources during lean agricultural months,” says Velayuthan, whose initial funding came from MFIs. “We looked at five broad areas where this expertise could be used, and classified these as neem, tamarind, medicinal plants, traditional crafts and charcoal.”

Velayuthan says he faced his biggest hurdle in setting up the company; next came the first milestone of breaking even. Aaharam charges its members a fee. This serves as working capital for the company. It also seeks out marketing and retail tie-ups that would bring in funds for expansion and business development. It already has a tie-up with the Mumbai-based Parle group for the sale of mango pulp and has recently entered into a contract with Bharat Petroleum for producing fuel pellets from agro-waste.

Aaharam is only one of the instances of the work being done in the rural sector. Says Vineet Rai of Aavishkaar, “The entire rural space has come alive in the past few years. There is a huge pipeline and we can’t respond to all of them.” When he started out in 2002, things were very different. “There were not many projects that we could invest in at the time. We used to get about two applications a month then. We are now getting an application a day.”

Forming Networking Platforms and Communities

Rangsutra is a company that Aavishkaar supports. It has, within a year of being set up, established a small export market and a link with urban retailers such as FABIndia for the linen and hand embroidered clothes it makes. Says Sumita Ghose, “It is a difficult process, but we have learned to get out of the NGO mindset. Managing cash flows was a unique experience, but it has helped us focus and think our strategies through.”

Another example is LabourNet. Run by Solomon J. P., it started out as an organization that looked after the rights of construction workers. It has evolved into a complete database of construction workers in and around Bangalore that links industry and laborers and facilitates training programs targeted at the construction workers. “We charge a fee from the company and the workers. We also offer our services to companies that want to train the workers, and that becomes a steady revenue stream.” LabourNet helps the workers get medical and other workplace benefits and works with the companies to enhance productivity.

The network has tremendous community contact, which opens other doors. LabourNet has won contracts with Bosch to market the latter’s tools to construction workers; with microfinance companies; and with a waterproofing company that wants construction workers to use its products. Says Solomon, “Workers get these products cheap because they are buying in bulk; the water-proofing company benefits as it gets bulk orders, and we get the funds to run our network.”

The Individual Makes Way for the Organization

Most of these organizations are also developing professional management teams to run their daily operations. That is vastly different from the earlier NGO model of centralized decision making that was usually dependent on a charismatic founder or a committed charity organization. This is partly due to the nature of the projects being planned and the increased volume of funds flowing into the sector. Says Varun Sahni of Acumen, “We don’t invest in an individual. We look for an organization.” Acumen representatives are part of the beneficiary organization’s management board and participate in the decision-making.

Professional participation is welcomed by people from within and outside the social sector. Says Karmayog’s Somani, whose portal aims to connect NGOs with those who want to fund, help or seek their help, “We want to ensure that the NGO sector has access to trained and educated professionals.” For instance, Karmayog has been working on civic issues in the city of
Mumbai and has effectively used systematic networking between lawyers, academics and engineers to initiate dialogue between citizens and the local municipal corporation.

Several donor agencies are also driving NGOs to inject professional management approaches. Says Venkat Krishnan of GiveIndia, part of Give Foundation, “For us, the driving force is empowering both NGOs and donors. By allowing NGOs to state what they want support for, we are allowing them to focus on their missions and strategies the way they wish to. And by allowing donors to choose which projects they want to donate to, we are ensuring that there is an automatic ‘market pressure’ to encourage efficiency and effectiveness.”

The Flip Side of Getting Business-like

While these are sound and logical arguments, there is of course a flip side. Professional management, scale and sustainability may well be the way to go for the social sector, but not all socially relevant projects lend themselves to a market-oriented rigor.

India does not have a social security network like many developed countries. It often falls upon the voluntary sector to look after the marginalized sections of society such as abused children and women, the poor, the mentally challenged and other underprivileged sections of society. Funds are hard to come by for these projects as they do not fit the new mold. The challenge going forward is for this segment of the social sector to redefine the rules.

Source : http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/

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Education Matrix of India

January 27, 2007

Preamble

  1. Rs 45,000 cr** per year is repatriated out of India, for nearly 1,90,000 Indian students studying abroad. [** these are estimated figures]
  2. Rs 3,000 cr is the yearly budget of the University Grants Commission, UGC, in New Delhi.
  3. Rs 3,000 cr** is spent by nearly 6,00,000 students trying to arrange and learn for the entrance examinations into the 7 IIT’s and the first 20 top IIM’s and Management Institutes. Selection rate is hardly 1.5% against nearly 10% in Ivy league colleges such as MIT, Harvard, Cambridge, Stanford etc.
  4. Rs 50,000 cr** is spent by Indians, every year, for import of 8,00,000 kgs. of Gold . So there is enough money to be spent by Indians for good things.
  5. Higher education is subsidized, while we still have 350 million as per GOI and 650 millions as per UNDP who are illiterate! Even after 56 years of Independence we have still not taken the first step in the path of education. The present definition of an ‘illiterate’, as defined in India, needs to be changed.
  6. Why should we pay only $45, per month, as fees in the IIT’s and depend on hand outs of the GOI, when our youth must pay $ 2000 to 3000 per month fees, in equivalent Institutions in the USA?
  7. The drop out rate between the Class 1st to the Class 10+2, is nearly 94% in India. The present system is designed ONLY for the balance 6%. How are the balance 94%, who drop out, supposed to manage?
  8. The present system puts in too much emphasis for the development of IQ [only 5% of brain used] and not enough into SQ and EQ
  9. We do not seem to be preparing our youth to face the International challenge of an open economy, which will happen in the next 2 to 5 years. One can find engineers, accountants, lawyers, MBA’s, graduates in Science, Commerce and Arts – but no skilled manpower in the 1800 different fields required by enterprises, to run the Nation! People are available. Most of them are not employable in India or outside!
  10. Education & Training is a life-long process and not meant to stop at an age of 20 or 22! In the progressive countries of the world, nearly 1 month per year is reserved for training/re-training and re-education, right up to an age of 55 or 60. The advantages of Training have still not been understood by the people of India.
  11. Education in India still considered as a social cause only. Fortunately, the Politicians have recognized Education as a good and lucrative business, as many of them are running a large number of Institutions.
  12. The problems of poor quality in education & training will not go away by controls, but by de-controls. High Capitation fees are there because of the number of seats available are much less than the actual demand. Market forces, supply and demand should balance the existence of Educational Institutions.
  13. Paradigm methods for funding of new educational infrastructure are not being considered. We need 30-year-low-interest-tax-free-infrastructure-bonds.
  14. In a developing nation like India, the higher you study, the more the subsidy you get from the state. Why should B. Com., B.Sc. B.A., etc be subsidized?

Recommendations

  1. Higher education should be ‘de-licensed’. AICTE should become a ‘enabler’ rather than a ‘controller’. License Raj to go, it is not serving any purpose, only a reason to stifle the growth of all types of higher education in India, and discourage excellence. Quality is achieved only with freedom.
  2. All subsidies for higher education must be removed. These funds should be recycled for Primary, Secondary, High School and ESD and VET only.
  3. Both ESD and VET promote higher levels of SQ and EQ. Many students, who do higher studies, as they work, understand how the world works. Here kids are doing higher studies without understanding the environment, maturity is not enough. Some times quality is poor, so is the confidence levels of the output.
  4. Foreign language, besides English, is a must. Eg., German, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Spanish, etc…
  5. Work experience is a must, not only summer training. At least +2 years, after college for MBA, and another +2 years after Masters, for a PhD.
  6. Teachers and Professors must ‘shunt’ between college and enterprise. Cannot stay put only in one place. Stagnation leads to obsolescence!
  7. Funding of all types of higher education needs a paradigm shift of thinking. Privatize maximum. Do not ask for the source of funds for the next 20 years. Best teachers must be attracted to work in Educational Institutions. Reservation of up to 35% of the seats can be kept for Merit-cum-Poverty cases.
  8. Education is BIG Business any where in the world. About $2400 billion** per year, nearly 5 times the size of IT and software. If we can pick up only 10% of the world business, it will increase our GDP by 50%! This can be achieved in the next 10 to 15 years. Why should we allow Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia or Dubai to take away our business and jobs?
  9. India is ideally suited to become a HUB for education for Asian countries in the near future. Australia earns nearly $20 billion** per year on foreign students. [ this is nearly 40% of the entire export of India and nearly 200% of India’s software exports]
  10. Quality will improve only by deregulation and NOT by regulation and controls. Let there be a 100 IIT’s or a 100 IIM’s. The good institutions do not have to advertise and promise placements etc. The market knows best. Interaction between Institutions and Industry-Enterprise must be magnified 10 fold.
  11. Indian Institutions must bench mark with the rest of the world and NOT only with each other, in India! Foreign accreditation is required to improve ‘Governance’. ISO 9000 is not enough. Look at 6 sigma, etc.
  12. And lastly, Think Global but Act local! Which means, that we should get all the Best Ideas from all over the World and implement them to Indian conditions, for achieving the Best Results for the people of India.

The only Constant in Life is CHANGE!

                                           Source : i watch-Transforming India

Kindly write for more information & details for i watch-Transfomring India book.

Ajay Singh Niranjan ( ajay_uor@yahoo.com)

i watch www.wakeupcall.org Education 1st

551, 2nd Floor , Mukherji Nagar, Delhi -110009

7 ways to improve your social skills

January 27, 2007

In today’s world, social skills at work are as essential as hard skills and business etiquette.Not everyone, however, is endowed with good social skills. If you happen to fall in this category, do not worry. Social skills can be developed with a little practice and they will go a long way in boosting your career.

 iPractise taking instructions

This is easier said than done. Most of us think we already know what the other person is trying to say. Secondly, we may be preoccupied with other thoughts when our boss is instructing us on how to go about a certain task.

As a result, we may forget important details and make mistakes that could cost someone their job. Remember these points:

~ Listen carefully for things said and implied.
~ Clarify.
~ Understand what has been told to you.
~ Acknowledge that you have understood.
~ Reconfirm instructions by quickly summarizing what you have understood.

iiPractise explaining a problem to your supervisor/ boss

Do you feel butterflies in your stomach the moment you encounter a problem and need to involve your boss? Do you worry that s/he might think you are incompetent to handle it yourself? 

These feelings are quite justified. However, you still need to explain the problem to your boss. The secret lies in the term ‘explain’ and not ‘complain’.  To explain effectively, pay attention to:

 ~ The volume of your voice and tone. It should not be too soft, loud or screechy. ~ Be respectful.~ Keep your emotions in check. Be calm. You may be flustered by the problem; however, you don’t need to let your boss know that. ~ Remember to include all the facts of the problem. Try to find most of the answers yourself before approaching your boss. ~ Offer a solution if you can. Your boss will appreciate your initiative.

 iiiPractise asking for help

There are times at work when we are so overwhelmed by the things that need be done that we get all worked up and stressed out. We still do not ask for help, for fear that we might be perceived as incompetent. However, when you have a task at hand that must be completed and you know you cannot do it alone, you have to be humble enough to ask for help.

Identify people at work who handle a particular task better than anyone else and request them to help you if they have the time. They may be happy to help. Also, remember:

 ~ No man is an island. We all need people and people need us. 
~ Two heads are better than one and, yes, four hands are better than two.
~ It is nice to be important but it is more important to be nice. Help others; they, in turn, will help you

~ Be gracious when you accept or refuse help. This will enhance your chances of building a strong support system on which you can depend when you need help.

 ivPractise accepting feedback

It is natural for us to become defensive when we hear anything negative about ourselves. However, have you considered it might be just as difficult for the person giving the feedback to be candid?

Besides, it is possible for others to see things about you that you may not even aware of.

 ~ Appreciate the fact that someone has taken the risk of giving you feedback. ~ Be open to new ideas and new ways of thinking. ~ Don’t take criticism personally because, even though it is about you, it is still the other person’s perception; his or her views need not necessarily be the ‘real’ you. ~ Feel free to accept or reject all or any part of the feedback without feeling obliged to explain your choice.

 vPractise giving constructive criticism

The word criticism spells doom for some. It need not be that way. There are two types of criticisms — constructive and destructive. All of us have been at the receiving end of these types of criticism at some point in our lives.

It depends on what you are criticising in a person and the purpose of the criticism. If the objective of criticising is to demean and insult a person, it would be destructive criticism. Such criticism is best ignored.

Do remember, the situations that bring about the need to criticise can become sensitive and volatile. It is easy for the person criticising, as well as the recipient of the criticism, to overreact and start accusing each other.

Giving constructive criticism and seeing that it is well received is a fine art. Things to remember:

 ~ Stay focused. Don’t confuse the person with the problem.
~ Keep tempers down.
~ Use a suggestive approach rather than a dismissive one. ~ Reiterate that the person is good but the problem could be handled differently. ~ Be sincere, honest and caring while giving constructive criticism. ~ Express your faith in the person and his/ her ability to successfully implement and reap the benefits of the suggestions given.

viPractise receiving compliments

Many of us are especially wary or shy when someone compliments us. Why? Do we think we don’t deserve  compliments? That we are not worthy of them? Or is it plain modesty? Whatever it is, it is time to get over it. We need to understand that accepting compliments is not self-indulgence. So:

 ~ Don’t feel embarrassed and brush it off.~ Never counter it with something negative about yourself.~ Don’t be arrogant; accept the compliment graciously.~ Smile and thank the person for the compliment. Express genuine happiness.

 viiPractise giving complimentsI have very often heard people saying, “She is excellent at her work but, if we tell her that, it might go to her head.”

This may not always be the case. It depends on how one is complimented. There is a delicate line between flattery and genuinely complimenting someone.

If you keep these suggestions in mind, you can easily compliment someone without sounding fake:

 ~ Use simple language. Smile and look into the person’s eyes while complimenting him/ her. It sounds more genuine this way.~ Using filmi dialogues and a lot of actions could make it look like your aim is to flatter, not compliment.  ~ Modulate your voice to match the expression of admiration on your face.~ Don’t laugh or giggle while complimenting someone. It could sound like you are being sarcastic.

Finally, remember a good social network will help you at work.

You need social skills to find a job and to keep one. So, if social skills do not come easily to you, it will be well worth your time to pinpoint your weaknesses and work on them.

                                         – by Anita D’Souza (source: Rediff.com)

Employment Generation – Action Plan for the upliftment of Rural & Urban INDIA

January 26, 2007

 

Action Plan for the upliftment of Rural & Urban INDIA

In order to achieve Employment Generation, +10% GDP Growth per year, Reduction of Poverty and making Indian Enterprises World Class in terms of Quality & Cost

By the use of Education & Training – Focus on LITERACY, ESD & VET

A. 100% Primary Functional – Literacy. Learn to read & write in 40 to 60 hours or in 2 to 3 months, for ages 8 to 80 years! Nearly 350 to 500 million people are illiterate!

Enterprise Skills Development – ESD. ESD for Class 1st to Class 12th students & higher. Only 1 to 2 hours required per week. Teaches the youth about enterprises & how the real world funtions! In India the dropout rate betwen Class 1st and Class 12th is 94%.

C. Vocation Education & Training – VET. VET for youth of ages 14 to 35 years & higher. Choice of nearly 1200 modules, in 25 different business fields. In developed & developing countries nearly 90% to 95% of the youth opt for VET. If India trains 3% to 5% of the population in VET, like in other developed and developing countries, it would mean nearly 30 to 50 million trained & skilled people per year. Engineers, Doctors & MBA’s require world class supporting staff & manpower.We are not discussing’Higher Education’ since all the present focus in India is only on Higher Education!

  • The above is a simple diagramatic representation for understanding the employment & unemployment figures.
  • 29 million people are born every year, average of the last ten years, 10 million die every year. While the population increase is only 19 million per year, education and other forms of human development need to be planned for the full 29 million, who enter the main stream of the economy every year!
  • The above is based on the assumption that all the youth should enter the educational system, at different levels, each year.
  • The death rate has not been adjusted in the figure of 29 million per year, as it is not relevant
  • Cumulative unemployment 300mn (estimate)
  • The present emphasis is on higher education, which hardly benefits 7% of the emploment sector. We need to strengthen the P&SE, ESD and VET sectors to benefit the 93% of employment. 

(Estimates based on studies conducted by Development Education International Society, Pune & i Watch,
Bombay.)

Kindly write for more information & details

Ajay Singh Niranjan ( ajay_uor@yahoo.com)

i watch www.wakeupcall.org Education 1st

551, 2nd Floor , Mukherji Nagar, Delhi -110009

Transforming INDIA-Into an Economic Power & Developed Nation

January 25, 2007

Transforming INDIA-Into an Economic Power & Developed Nation

Our suggestions are for the following Action Plans for Transformation:-

Priority 1
Relevant HRD, Education & Training

  1. 100% Primary Functional Literacy – Learn to read & write any Indian Language in 40 to 60 hours @ 1 hour per day for 5 days a week. Nearly 500 million people need to learn the 3 R’s. Which means reading, writing & arithmetic. As per the government of India, the average literacy rate is 63%, based on the indian definition, if you can write your name. If one uses the international definition, like minimum primary education as the criteria, the actual literacy rate could come down to 40%! We need to achive 100% functional literacy in the next 5 to 10 years!
  2. Primary & Secondary Education – The dropout rate of 90% to 94% in schools, from kindergarten to class 12th, must be reduced to less than 10%. This includes children who have never attended school.
  3. Enterprise Skills Development or ESD– We suggest that this should be started from class 5th right upto class 12th. ESD is ‘about enterprises and how the real world works’. Help’s decide future choice of profession for the youth. Build’s confidence in one self. Only two hours per week are required.
  4. Vocational Education & Training or VET-VET teaches the youth a skill or a competence or a trade. One learns to do some skilled job! In developed countries, 80% of the youth from age of 14 to 35 should go in for VET. This would mean about 50 million people per year.
  5. Excepting for I.T– which is 2.0% to 2.5% of world’s GDP, where there may be 50,000 private training centres operating in India; where are the training centres to run the balance 97% of the skills, trades, competances required to run the nation?
  6. Liberalize Education – Decontrol and privatize all forms of education like business was in 1991! Make India a Hub for Education.
  7. The I. T. business– Ever since inception, has been outside the control and regulation of the central and state governments. Market forces, fierce competition, and constant innovation has allowed Indian I. T. education to be world class.
  8. Private and NRI participation in Education – Government should concentrate up to high school only, from class 1 to class 10 only. The rest thay should leave to the private sector.
  9. Entrepreneurship Institutes in each Block– Entrepreneur promotional institutes, in all the blocks of the states. 97% of new employment is in the unorganized sector and SME’s. We need skill sets for the youth.
  10. India will only prosper when the Godess of Learning, ‘Saraswati’ is unshakled and unchained as was the Godess of wealth ‘Lakshmi’ in 1991.

Priority 2
Good Governance

    Benefits of leadership & good governance are highlighted in ten different articles. If one looks at the contents page, one will notice that nearly 70% of our articles are ‘People Dependant’, Nine on Governance and eight on Human Resource Development and three on Employment Generation! One can understand Good Governance, only if we understand the effects of bad governance. Many such examples have been given in our articles for this very reason

Priority 3
Central government policy changes

  1. Removal of SSI (small scale industry) reservation. Reservation does more harm than good.
  2. Amend ‘Labour and Employee Laws’ and give local enterprises and organizations a level playing field on par with other developing Nations of Asia.
  3. Encourage “labour intensive” technologies for employment generation.
  4. Recognize the meaning and importance of ‘SME’s (small medium enterprise) and not ‘SSI’s (small scale industry). We must understand the importance of the ‘M’ and the ‘E’ in SME’s as ‘SME’s account for 90% of the Indian Economy against 7% in SSI. This recognition should also be understood & supported by the Government of India, financial institutions as well as trade & business. World over SME’s are the main drivers of the world economy. Large organizations sub-contract most of their non-core business to highly productive and cost effective SME’s.

Priority 4
Export activities of the Economy, other than software

    Software and I.T. is 2.5% of the World’s GDP, we need to look at the balance 97.5% of the economic sector! The five areas of economic activity, mentioned below, are only some examples, there are many others.

  1. Trading, Wholesale & Retail, is 15 times bigger than I.T. (big employment and GDP generator)
  2. Manufacturing, as an enterprise, is 11 times bigger than I.T. (generates about 75% of government revenues)
  3. Health Care, as an enterprise is 4 times bigger than I.T. (big employment and GDP generator)
  4. Travel & Tourism, as an enterprise is 6 times bigger than I.T. (big employment and GDP generator)
  5. Education,as an enterprise is 4 times bigger than I.T. (big employment and GDP generator)

Priority 5
Funding Infrastructure (US$ 500 Billion)


Infrastructure needs funding at 5% to 7% per year, rate of interest. The tenure of borrowing needs to be extended to at least 10-15-20 years, since it takes nearly 5 years for ‘Building’ and another 5 years for ‘Gestation and Break-Even’. These bonds should be of low-interest but with incentives and tax breaks.


Priority 6
Awareness program for the above 5 priority areas


By the use of our 56 page book – Transforming INDIA. Relevant awareness with solutions and action plans is our prime objective. Our book is a step in that direction. It has 28 articles and notes on Governance, Human Resource Development, Enterprise & Economy & Employment Generation.

FOCUS OF i WATCH – TRANSFORMING INDIA (  Mr.Krishan Khanna) :

1. HRD, Education & Training

2. Policy Changes regarding, SSI, SME & relevant Labor Laws

3. Emphasis in exports, eg. Retail/Wholesale, Manufacturing, Travel & Tourism, Healthcare, Agriculture & Education

4. Funding Infrastructure

5. Governance & Leadership of India

For more detail & Information: ” Transforming India”
you may order the 56 page book – in any language.
You may see a sample of a few pages of the book here.
English  |  Gujarati  |  Hindi  |  Marathi  |   Punjabi  |  Tamil  |  Telugu  |  Kannada

Citizen’s Respond for i watch :
“I hope to use some of the wisdom gleaned from your paper in the formulation of my policies of corporate governance” – N.R.Narayana Murthy ,Chairman & Chief Mentor Infosys.

“I have not heard of any NGO like iWatch which has such a holistic plan for Transforming India” – Maj. Gen. D. N. Khurana, Director General ALL India Management Association.

“They have set out to create a framework for achieving a high and sustainable growth for india. This is indeed a very unique strategy designed to have a far-reaching impact”

– Dr. Rajiv Kumar Chief Economist Confederation Of Indian Industry

FOR MORE INFOMATION & Details ..

Kindly Contact me..

Ajay Singh Niranjan, BTech IITR

Email: ajay_uor@yahoo.com

10 Reasons why India can innovate- Vijay Govindarajan

January 25, 2007

Dear friends,

Innovation needs opportunities and India has a range of opportunities from rural to urban India ….a range of expectations …..a range of experience like Diversity is a source of unique Ideas and may be conflicts also. But need a clear understanding about Indian’s strength & weakness , her spiritual and culture heritage and more … 

That is why, strategy Guru Gary Hamel (Competition for the Future) is very right …“Top down process achieves unity of purpose, Bottom’s up can achieve diversity, but we need to balance the two so we need deep diagonal slices in the strategy making process”.       

 10 Reasons why India can innovate– Vijay Govindarajan (Ten Rules of Strategic Innovation) 

1. Freedom of speech and willing ness to disagree foster creative solution

2. Very high caliber human capital

3. Diversity in the true sense of the term , the key to stimulate intellectual discourse

4. Functioning capital market and venture capital sector to fund new Ideas.

5. Young population is more rebellious and wants to challenge the rules of the game

6. Entry of global competitors into Indian threaten the status qua.

7. Lack of legacy technologies, which offer leapfrogging possibilities.

8. Unique market structure, customer needs & affordability.

9. Excellent Institute infrastructure such as MBA programmes . legal framework, market research firm,etc.

10. Stress on Science & Technology education. 

Learning From the West – N R Narayana Murthy

January 25, 2007

Dear Friends,

West is searching some solutions from east. East is searching some solutions from west. But The complete solution exists at confluence of east & west.

In a very simple equation, East understands heart & soul of the system very well and West understands body & mind of the system very well.

Sharing this nice Speech by Narayana Murthy for focusing our attention [ why india has less Innovation ] at targeted space of change [ our mental models ]

Learning From the West – N R Narayana Murthy

We are living in the past. No other society gloats so much about the past as we do, with as little current accomplishment.

Download pdf file: web.iitd.ac.in/~mamidala/HTMLobj-142/LearningFromTheWest.pdf

N.R. Narayana Murthy

Ladies and gentlemen:

It is a pleasure to be here at the Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management. Lal Bahadur Shastri was a man of strong values and he epitomized simple living. He was a freedom fighter and innovative administrator who contributed to nation building in full measure. It is indeed a matter of pride for me to be chosen for the Lal Bahadur Shastri Award for Public Administration and Management Sciences. I thank the jury for this honor.

When I got the invitation to speak here, I decided to speak on an important topic on which I have pondered for years – the role of Western values in contemporary Indian society. Coming from a company that is built on strong values, the topic is close to my heart. Moreover, an organization is representative of society, and some of the lessons that I have learnt are applicable in the national context. In fact, values drive progress and define quality of life in society.

The word community joins two Latin words com (“together” or “with”) and unus (“one”). A community, then, is both one and many. It is a unified multitude and not a mere group of people. As it is said in the Vedas: Man can live individually, but can survive only collectively. Hence, the challenge is to form a progressive community by balancing the interests of the individual and that of the society. To meet this, we need to develop a value system where people accept modest sacrifices for the common good.

What is a value system? It is the protocol for behavior that enhances the trust, confidence and commitment of members of the community. It goes beyond the domain of legality – it is about decent and desirable behavior. Further, it includes putting the community interests ahead of your own. Thus, our collective survival and progress is predicated on sound values.

There are two pillars of the cultural value system – loyalty to family and loyalty to community. One should not be in isolation to the other, because, successful societies are those which combine both harmoniously. It is in this context that I will discuss the role of Western values in contemporary Indian society.

Some of you here might say that most of what I am going to discuss are actually Indian values in old ages, and not Western values. I live in the present, not in the bygone era. Therefore, I have seen these values practiced primarily in the West and not in India. Hence, the title of the topic.

 I am happy as long as we practice these values – whether we call it Western or old Indian values. As an Indian, I am proud to be part of a culture, which has deep-rooted family values. We have tremendous loyalty to the family. For instance, parents make enormous sacrifices for their children. They support them until they can stand on their own feet. On the other side, children consider it their duty to take care of aged parents.

 We believe: Mathru devo bhava – mother is God, and pithru devo bhava – father is God. Further, brothers and sisters sacrifice for each other. In fact, the eldest brother or sister is respected by all the other siblings. As for marriage, it is held to be a sacred union – husband and wife are bonded, most often, for life. In joint families, the entire family works towards the welfare of the family. There is so much love and affection in our family life.

This is the essence of Indian values and one of our key strengths. Our families act as a critical support mechanism for us. In fact, the credit to the success of Infosys goes, as much to the founders as to their families, for supporting them through the tough times. Unfortunately, our attitude towards family life is not reflected in our attitude towards community behavior. From littering the streets to corruption to breaking of contractual obligations, we are apathetic to the common good. In the West – the US, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand – individuals understand that they have to be responsible towards their community.

The primary difference between the West and us is that, there, people have a much better societal orientation. They care more for the society than we do. Further, they generally sacrifice more for the society than us. Quality of life is enhanced because of this. This is where we need to learn from the West.

I will talk about some of the lessons that we, Indians, can learn from the West.

In the West, there is respect for the public good. For instance, parks free of litter, clean streets, public toilets free of graffiti – all these are instances of care for the public good. On the contrary, in India, we keep our houses clean and water our gardens everyday – but, when we go to a park, we do not think twice before littering the place.

Corruption, as we see in India, is another example of putting the interest of oneself, and at best that of one’s family, above that of the society. Society is relatively corruption free in the West. For instance, it is very difficult to bribe a police officer into avoiding a speeding ticket.

This is because of the individual’s responsible behavior towards the community as a whole On the contrary, in India, corruption, tax evasion, cheating and bribery have eaten into our vitals. For instance, contractors bribe officials, and construct low-quality roads and bridges. The result is that society loses in the form of substandard defence equipment and infrastructure, and low-quality recruitment, just to name a few impediments. Unfortunately, this behavior is condoned by almost everyone.

Apathy in solving community matters has held us back from making progress, which is otherwise within our reach. We see serious problems around us but do not try to solve them. We behave as if the problems do not exist or is somebody else’s. On the other hand, in the West, people solve societal problems proactively. There are several examples of our apathetic attitude. For instance, all of us are aware of the problem of drought in India.

More than 40 years ago, Dr. K. L. Rao – an irrigation expert, suggested creation of a water grid connecting all the rivers in North and South India, to solve this problem. Unfortunately, nothing has been done about this. The story of power shortage in Bangalore is another instance. In 1983, it was decided to build a thermal power plant to meet Bangalore‘s power requirements. Unfortunately, we have still not started it. Further, the Milan subway in Bombay is in a deplorable state for the last 40 years, and no action has been taken.

To quote another example, considering the constant travel required in the software industry; five years ago, I had suggested a 240-page passport. This would eliminate frequent visits to the passport office. In fact, we are ready to pay for it. However, I am yet to hear from the Ministry of External Affairs on this.

We, Indians, would do well to remember Thomas Hunter’s words: Idleness travels very slowly, and poverty soon overtakes it. What could be the reason for all this? We were ruled by foreigners for over thousand years. Thus, we have always believed that public issues belonged to some foreign ruler and that we have no role in solving them.

Moreover, we have lost the will to proactively solve our own problems. Thus, we have got used to just executing someone else’s orders. Borrowing Aristotle’s words: We are what we repeatedly do. Thus, having done this over the years, the decision-makers in our society are not trained for solving problems. Our decision-makers look to somebody else to take decisions. Unfortunately, there is nobody to look up to, and this is the tragedy.

Our intellectual arrogance has also not helped our society. I have traveled extensively, and in my experience, have not come across another society where people are as contemptuous of better societies as we are, with as little progress as we have achieved. Remember that arrogance breeds hypocrisy. No other society gloats so much about the past as we do, with as little current accomplishment.

Friends, this is not a new phenomenon, but at least a thousand years old. For instance, Al Barouni, the famous Arabic logician and traveler of the 10th century, who spent about 30 years in India from 997 AD to around 1027 AD, referred to this trait of Indians. According to him, during his visit, most Indian pundits considered it below their dignity even to hold arguments with him. In fact, on a few occasions when a pundit was willing to listen to hm, and found his arguments to be very sound, he invariably asked Barouni: which Indian pundit taught these smart things!

The most important attribute of a progressive society is respect for others who have accomplished more than they themselves have, and learn from them. Contrary to this, our leaders make us believe that other societies do not know anything! At the same time, everyday, in the newspapers, you will find numerous claims from our leaders that ours is the greatest nation. These people would do well to remember Thomas Carlyle’s words: The greatest of faults is to be conscious of none.

If we have to progress, we have to change this attitude, listen to people who have performed better than us, learn from them and perform better than them. Infosys is a good example of such an attitude. We continue to rationalize our failures. No other society has mastered this part as well as we have. Obviously, this is an excuse to justify our incompetence, corruption, and apathy. This attitude has to change. As Sir Josiah Stamp has said: It is easy to dodge our responsibilities, but we cannot dodge the consequences of dodging our responsibilities.

Another interesting attribute, which we Indians can learn from the West, is their accountability. Irrespective of your position, in the West, you are held accountable for what you do. However, in India, the more ‘important’ you are, the less answerable you are. For instance, a senior politician once declared that he ‘forgot’ to file his tax returns for 10 consecutive years – and he got away with it. To quote another instance, there are over 100 loss making public sector units (central) in India. Nevertheless, I have not seen action taken for bad performance against top managers in these organizations.

Dignity of labor is an integral part of the Western value system. In the West, each person is proud about his or her labor that raises honest sweat. On the other hand, in India, we tend to overlook the significance of those who are not in professional jobs. We have a mind set that reveres only supposedly intellectual work.

For instance, I have seen many engineers, fresh from college, who only want to do cutting-edge work and not work that is of relevance to business and the country. However, be it an organization or society, there are different people performing different roles. For success, all these people are required to discharge their duties. This includes everyone from the CEO to the person who serves tea – every role is important. Hence, we need a mind set that reveres everyone who puts in honest work.

Indians become intimate even without being friendly. They ask favors of strangers without any hesitation. For instance, the other day, while I was traveling from Bangalore to Mantralaya, I met a fellow traveler on the train. Hardly 5 minutes into the conversation, he requested me to speak to his MD about removing him from the bottom 10% list in his company, earmarked for disciplinary action. I was reminded of what Rudyard Kipling once said: A westerner can be friendly without being intimate while an easterner tends to be intimate without being friendly.

Yet another lesson to be learnt from the West, is about their professionalism in dealings. The common good being more important than personal equations, people do not let personal relations interfere with their professional dealings. For instance, they don’t hesitate to chastise a colleague, even if he is a personal friend, for incompetent work.

In India, I have seen that we tend to view even work interactions from a personal perspective. Further, we are the most ‘thin-skinned’ society in the world – we see insults where none is meant. This may be because we were not free for most of the last thousand years. Further, we seem to extend this lack of professionalism to our sense of punctuality. We do not seem to respect the other person’s time.

The Indian Standard Time somehow seems to be always running late. Moreover, deadlines are typically not met. How many public projects are completed on time? The disheartening aspect is that we have accepted this as the norm rather than the exception. In the West, they show professionalism by embracing meritocracy. Meritocracy by definition means that we cannot let personal prejudices affect our evaluation of an individual’s performance. As we increasingly start to benchmark ourselves with global standards, we have to embrace meritocracy.

In the West, right from a very young age, parents teach their children to be independent in thinking. Thus, they grow up to be strong, confident individuals. In India, we still suffer from feudal thinking. I have seen people, who are otherwise bright, refusing to show independence and preferring to be told what to do by their boss. We need to overcome this attitude if we have to succeed globally.

The Western value system teaches respect to contractual obligation. In the West, contractual obligations are seldom dishonored. This is important – enforceability of legal rights and contracts is the most important factor in the enhancement of credibility of our people and nation.

In India, we consider our marriage vows as sacred. We are willing to sacrifice in order to respect our marriage vows. However, we do not extend this to the public domain. For instance, India had an unfavorable contract with Enron. Instead of punishing the people responsible for negotiating this, we reneged on the contract – this was much before we came to know about the illegal activities at Enron.

To quote another instance, I had given recommendations to several students for the national scholarship for higher studies in US universities. Most of them did not return to India even though contractually they were obliged to spend five years after their degree in India.

In fact, according to a professor at a reputed US university, the maximum default rate for student loans is among Indians – all of these students pass out in flying colors and land lucrative jobs, yet they refuse to pay back their loans. Thus, their action has made it difficult for the students after them, from India, to obtain loans. We have to change this attitude.

Further, we Indians do not display intellectual honesty. For example, our political leaders use mobile phones to tell journalists on the other side that they do not believe in technology! If we want our youngsters to progress, such hypocrisy must be stopped. We are all aware of our rights as citizens. Nevertheless, we often fail to acknowledge the duty that accompanies every right. To borrow Dwight Eisenhower’s words: People that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both. Our duty is towards the community as a whole, as much as it is towards our families.

We have to remember that fundamental social problems grow out of a lack of commitment to the common good. To quote Henry Beecher: Culture is that which helps us to work for the betterment of all. Hence, friends, I do believe that we can make our society even better by assimilating these Western values into our own culture – we will be stronger for it.

Most of our behavior comes from greed, lack of self-confidence, lack of confidence in the nation, and lack of respect for the society. To borrow Gandhi’s words: There is enough in this world for everyone’s need, but not enough for everyone’s greed. Let us work towards a society where we would do unto others what we would have others do unto us. Let us all be responsible citizens who make our country a great place to live. In the words of Churchill: Responsibility is the price of greatness. We have to extend our family values beyond the boundaries of our home.

Finally, let us work towards maximum welfare of the maximum people – Samasta janaanaam sukhino bhavantu. Thus, let us – people of this generation, conduct ourselves as great citizens rather than just good people so that we can serve as good examples for our younger generation. –  Speaker : N R Narayana Murthy

 “It is Holistic universe where everything is fundamentally interconnected by common background”- Bhagvat Gita

A Journey to Yoga-meditation: A balance path (a win-win solution)

January 25, 2007

“Life is full of contradiction and surprises, that it is infact, full of paradox like success or failure, happiness or distress etc. So always one question arises in the mind, how we can balance our life in paradox (duality in nature).

Definitely Yoga-Mediation is a third alternative for overcome such dualities, balance the mind and for living the life with totality. Yoga is a remedy for doubt, confusion and intellectual dissatisfaction.

A basic principle of yoga is that practicing mental equilibrium neutralized the effects of delusion.Yoga-Meditation is a scientific process of neutralization of duality of Mental Speculation and Emotional stimulation from Successes & failure, Strength & Weakness, Discrimination and self sense –mind, Spirits and matter, Soul & Body, Knowledge & ignorance, health and diseases, Changeless and transistorizes, Light & darkness, Divine self & False Ego, Self-control and temptation, Life and death.

“It is the Holistic universe where everything is fundamentally interconnected by a common background”.

So In simple Term, Yoga means integration, unification, addition of positive elements in our bodies, minds, hearts and souls for harmonization of our all thoughts, actions and deeds for wellness of humanity.

Lord Krishna in Bhagvat Gita has described different yoga system for different types of people according to their way of living, nature and their conditional mind. All type of yoga – bhakti yoga (Devotion oriented), karma yoga (action oriented), Raja yoga (Patanjali Yoga system- scientific method of meditation) and janan Yoga (wisdom oriented) reach every body on path of self-realization.

Patanjali, the father of Yoga, is famous for his ancient eightfold path of yoga. The idea is to follow a path of positive mind control that leads one to the living understanding of being that is so effective that for the greatest students and masters of yoga – this goal is the ONLY GOAL. Pantajali called it Samadhi. It is also known as Nirvana,Union with the Divine Intelligence, Cosmic Consciousness, and Ultimate Bliss.

Patanjali Yoga system is a systematically method for attaining Ultimate bliss.The sequesnce of patanjali Yoga system is reprented in following way.

1.      Yama (Moral conduct)

2.      Niyama (Religious observance),

3.      Asana (Right posture to still bodily restlessness),

4.      Pranayama (control of Prana, Subtle life control),

5.      Pratayahar (Interiorization),

6.      Dharana (concentration),

7.      Dhyana (Meditation),

8.      Samadhi (superconscious experience – Ultimate Bliss).

The Ultimate aim of yoga to understand true nature of self (consciousness) and integrate with cosmic consciousness for attaining ultimate bliss which is described in this line beautifully.  

The Four Great Vedic statements:‘That Thou Art,’ ‘I am Brahman’, ‘This self is Brahman’, and ‘Brahman is Consciousness (Mind).’

Every Sage has said, “Know Thyself”

Concentration = Definite : Meditation = Infinite
YOGA = Definite + Infinite = Ultimate Bliss
YOGA = Self Consciousness + Cosmic consciousness = Ultimate Bliss

Basically Yoga provides a sets of experience based techniques so that we can aware our whole mind (Left Brain-logical, analytical, Fact based , sequential and right brain-synergetic, intuitive, Emotional, synthesizing, holistic) for integration of our thinking pattern and how it work effectively when it is driven by the soul. It brings us towards centre (root) which is infinite powerful, infinite creative and infinite bliss. So let’s go ahead – It is your choice but remember it is win-win deals for all human being.

I am sharing following divine songs of Bhagvat Gita for better understanding of Yoga-meditation.

“The uncontrolled mind does not guess that the Atman (soul) is present:
How can it mediate?
Without meditation, where is peace
without peace, where is happiness?”

“For one who has conquered the mind, the super soul is already reached, for he has attained tranquility to such a man: success & failure, happiness and distress, honor and dishonor are all the same”.

“Performed your duty equipoise, abandoning all attachment to success or failure. Such equanimity is called Yoga”.

“You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruit of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the result of your activities and never be attached to not doing your duty”.

“Now the Atman (Soul) as the lord and the master of the chariot, which is the body. The intellectual you should know as the charioteer. The mind should be known as (merely) the rein. The one whose mind is not harnessed properly, who’s is devoid of proper knowledge and wisdom, his sense organs go beyond the control of the intellect as vicious horse go beyond the control of charioteer”.

“Those who are beyond the dualities that arise from doubts, whose minds are engaged With in, who are always busy working for the welfare of all living being and who are free from all sins achieve liberation in the supreme“.

“He is perfect yogi who, compare to his ownself, see the true equality of all being, in both their happiness and their distress”.

Yoga (Integration or unification) is a vision of all sciences or arts & religion. Yoga resonance with psychology and quantum mechanics in a very scientific manner and bring us from happiness to Bliss. Yoga-Meditation moves yourself for understanding thoughts ,feeling and experiences effectively .Yoga-Meditation active our consciousness who integrates body, mind and heart. Yoga-Meditation is about true taste which you can feel in last continuously.  

So Just drinks (experience or feel it) this timeless wisdom from mind with complete devotion & faith in the heart and integrates your consciousness with cosmic consciousness for attaining ultimate bliss. It is a first step for understanding of this cosmic wisdom because Our Journey begins from Zero to Infinite. So at this balance path try to walk few steps with devotion & faith then you automatically can disclose mystery of complete happiness. It is your journey, only you can experience & feel it because true knowledge is just medium (a vehicle) for reaching ultimate goal (perfect happiness).

© Ajay Singh Niranjan  

Support the Mission:Great Human Capital 

Effective Artciles which align to above article. Kindly link and share your expereince.

||||||Effective Quotations by Great Thinker|||||| Gearge Bernard Shaw :Mahatma Gandhi :Peter F. Drucker

Warren Bennis : Jack Welch : Narayan Murthy

Human Capital Development & Education

January 25, 2007

Human Capital Development & Education

It is necessary to first understand the entire “Matrix” in education. Even after 59 years of Independence, the following situation remains as far as the Human Capital Development of our country is concerned:-

  1. Drop-out rate in schools from KG to 10+2 is (including those who never attended school) 90% to 94%.  
  2. China has about 1.80 million schools, while we have in India about 1.20 million schools!
  3. The “Governance” in Government run schools is very low. In many cases teachers are absent (15% to 60% absenteeism) from schools in rural and urban schools of India and are paid full wages and perks in spite of this! Studies have shown that even the poorest of the poor rather send their children to un-aided schools where fees have to be paid and not to government run free schools. The quality of schooling of such unaided schools is higher than Government schools although the salary of Government teachers is two to three times higher than the teachers of the un-aided schools.See articles and solutions on governance at www.wakeupcall.org
  4. The existing Indian definition of Literacy (if you can write your name you are literate) needs to be amended to International Standards. This criteria is used in the census for determining the literacy rate.
  5. As per the Ministry of HRD the present illiteracy is ONLY 37% or 430 million people, while as per UNICEF and UNDP it is nearly 60% or 650 million people. China has a Literacy rate of about 93%.
  6. The first step of making India a knowledge economy is literacy and needs to be given A1 priority.
  7. The total amount spent on education is about Rs. 91,000 crores per year. 15% by the Central Govt. and 85% by the State Governments The Education Cess will collect another Rs. 7000 crores per year. This is about 3.3% of GDP. The MHRD has calculated that another Rs. 40,000 crores per year would be required only for additional requirements for Primary Education!
  8. We estimate that another Rs. 100,000 crores are required per year just to have reasonable quality of Primary and Secondary education, up to Class 10th., which is where the Central and State Governments should concentrate for the next 10 to 20 years, or till we have at least 95% Literacy and at least 80% of the population who are completing the High School stage or Class 10th.
  9. As per our estimates the total expenditure for education is nearly 8% of GDP, about 3.3% from Government and about 4.7% from private participation. This includes funding of unaided schools and colleges + bribes and capitation fees + payment for students studying abroad + tuition classes +coaching classes +private I.T. & Software training institutes. Most of this private funding is confined to urban areas where only 30% stay.
  10. About 7% to 8% of the youth who finish the 10+2 stage (pre-university) enter the17, 960 colleges of India. 70% of all graduates are B.A. or Arts graduates. Is this relevant today? Most of these so called graduates are not-employable.
  11. Of all new employment taking place nearly 60% are self employed. About New Employment – 1% is with government, 2% with the private ‘organized sector’ and 97% with the ‘unorganized sector’.
  12. Presently there is little connect between education and employment generation & quality of Life
  13. The employers associations, chambers of commerce and other business organizations are fragmented. There is no “National Common Minimum Program” for “education and training of manpower” in India. In most developed and developing countries the Chambers of Commerce (who represent the employers and business) Lead from the front.
  14. About 26 million people are added every year to the existing education system, which is like adding another Australia + Hong Kong + Singapore & UAE per year!
  15. Presently both the Central Government as well as the State Governments are running in Financial Deficits, of about 9% to 11% of GDP, so the question of additional financing for education will strain not only the existing budgets but also put pressure on other sectors, where funds are being presently allocated.
  16. “Licence Raj” runs all Higher & Technical Education in India. Let us Bench-Mark with USA, Germany and Japan, the three largest economies of the World account for nearly 50% of the world’s GDP.  Do their governments exert similar controls as we have in India? Can we learn from them? There is fierce competition between the institutions in these countries for excellence!
  17. China has about 900 Universities, while we in India have 362 Universities. USA has 3600 and Japan has 4000!
  18. In India, the fees of the courses, pay-scales to the teachers, appointment of the head of the Institution and the syllabus, are decided by the 58 or more Central and State-Government Boards of Education. Will this create innovation, excellence  and world class students?
  19. The Coaching Business is getting bigger than the Education Business, entrance examinations for the IIT’s, IIM’s and a few prestigious  management schools attract about 600,000 applications (who spend nearly Rs.2.00 lac each for pre-coaching, amounting to Rs.12,000 crores per year, for 6000 seats. These institutions spend hardly Rs.800 to Rs.1,100 crores per year, as their teaching budgets!
  20. While 75% to 85% the youth of the developed and developing world learn a skill or competence or trade between the ages of 14 to 35, by Vocational Education & training, in India it is hardly covers 3% to 4% of the population!
  21. India has about 5000 ITI’s (Ministry of Labour) and about 5000 Vocational schools (Ministry of HRD), while China has about 500,000 senior secondary vocational schools!
  22. India has 300 million able bodied unemployed between the ages of 18 to 50, but they have no skill sets and therefore not employable! Employers in India are facing a huge shortage of skilled manpower. Wages and salaries in India, of skilled manpower are going up too fast. India will not be able to take advantage of the demographic profile of its population, if the youth do not receive relevant and quality Education & Training.
  23. We have not seen any co-ordination between the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of HRD as far as VET planning on a National level, is concerned
  24. We in India have NOT still appreciated the fact that, world wide, Education is 5 times or 500% bigger than I.T. or software!
  25. India can become an Educational Hub for the world and earn US$ 100 billion per year, after 10 to 20 years! We need to start now, but remove “Licence Raj” first, as was done for business in 1991! India has 7,700 foreign students while Australia has 383,000 foreign students!
  26. Because of the “Licence Raj” in Higher and Technical Education, it is estimated that nearly 70,000 to 90,000 students leave India every year for studying abroad. At any given time these 320,000 students cost the country a foreign exchange out flow of nearly US$9.6 billion per year or nearly Rs. 45,000 crores per year, enough to build 40 IIM’s or 20 IIT’s per year. Nearly 1,20,00 students leave India every year for foreign studies.
  27. The present problem of reservation will not solve the needs and aspirations of the youth. India needs a larger number of educational Institutions, seats and higher quality in the area of Higher & Technical education. Rationing, quotas and reservation can never address the actual situation. The Central and State governments are strapped for funds even for Primary and Secondary education. The solution lies in complete decontrol of all forms of Higher & Technical education; the same way as business was delicensed in1991!
  28. Since 1947 we have tried reservation and controls in the allocation of steel, cement, colour TV’s, airline tickets, cars, scooters, etc and have failed. Only increase of supply and decontrol has finally solved these issues.

If INDIA has to become a Knowledge Economy we need to do the following:

  1. Aim for 95% to 100% Literacy in the next 10 years
  2. Decontrol and involve the management of all primary schools to the local bodies such as Panchayats, Village Groups, Municipalities and local Citizen Groups. Allow the community to manage.
  3. Consider the use and issue of “Education Coupons” for school children, so that they can choose the schools of their choice and funding from the government, which would have been dispersed for the funding of Government run schools in rural and urban India, should be paid out. See www.ccsindia.org
  4. Scrap “Licence Raj” in Higher & Technical Education, after and including class 11th, to allow innovation, creativity and excellence in Education. See www.epsfi.org
  5. Ensure that 80% to 90% of the population in the age group of 14 years to 50 years goes in for some sort of relevant Vocational Education & Training. See www.wakeupcall.org
  6. Allow starting of Enterprise Skills Education, ESD, from Class 5th to the 12th. This will teach the youth about how the real world works. Only 100 hours per year required. Nearly 60% of the workforce in India is self-employed. See www.deispune.org
  7. Start Prevocational classes from Class 8th. Have Vocational Counsellors in all Higher Seconadary Schools. Upgrade all Higher Seconadry Schools for Vocational Education & Training.
  8. Have a dynamic interaction between all stake holders, Academia-Industry-Business-R&D-Chambers of Commerce-Student bodies-Parents organizations-Civil society and NGO‘s. Chambers of Commerce, who represents the employers and business, must lead from the front.
  9. Allow private finance and participation in all sectors of education, till we reach the goals as mentioned under item 8 in section one above.
  10. Allow tax breaks and incentives for private and NRI funding, for the next 20 years or till we achieve bench marks as mentioned under item 8 in section one above.

                                                              

FOCUS OF i WATCH – TRANSFORMING INDIA (Author – Mr.Krishan Khanna) :

1. HRD, Education & Training

2. Policy Changes regarding, SSI, SME & relevant Labor Laws

3. Emphasis in exports, eg. Retail/Wholesale, Manufacturing, Travel & Tourism, Healthcare, Agriculture & Education

4. Funding Infrastructure

5. Governance & Leadership of India

For more detail & Information: ” Transforming India” – http://www.wakeupcall.org

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Address: 551, 2nd Floor, Mukherji Nagar, New Delhi -110009, INDIA

Blog:http://o3.indiatimes.com/Learning_Creation_Innovation